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Trial details imported from

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Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated

Titles & IDs
Public title
The Use of Ketamine as Rescue Analgesia in the Recovery Room Following Opioid Administration. A Double-blind Randomised Trial in Postoperative Patients
Scientific title
The Use of Ketamine as Rescue Analgesia in the Recovery Room Following Opioid Administration. A Double-blind Randomised Trial in Postoperative Patients.
Secondary ID [1] 0 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Post Operative Pain 0 0
Condition category
Condition code

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Treatment: Drugs - ketamine

Treatment: Drugs: ketamine

Intervention code [1] 0 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 0 0
Pain scores at rest in recovery and at four hours postoperatively
Timepoint [1] 0 0
Secondary outcome [1] 0 0
Morphine protocol consumption.
Timepoint [1] 0 0
Secondary outcome [2] 0 0
Sedation scores - Recovery Room and four hours.
Timepoint [2] 0 0
Secondary outcome [3] 0 0
PONV scores - Recovery Room and four hours.
Timepoint [3] 0 0
Secondary outcome [4] 0 0
Frequency of antiemetic administration - Recovery Room and up to four hours.
Timepoint [4] 0 0
Secondary outcome [5] 0 0
Quality of recovery score preoperatively and at four hours.
Timepoint [5] 0 0
Secondary outcome [6] 0 0
Adverse events (vivid dreams, nausea, hallucinations, respiratory depression, pruritus) - Recovery Room and at four hours.
Timepoint [6] 0 0
Secondary outcome [7] 0 0
Time to discharge from the recovery room.
Timepoint [7] 0 0

Key inclusion criteria
- 1. Those patients requiring the routine pain protocol to be implemented as used in the
Post Anaesthetic Care Unit who need more than two doses of morphine (and having
received intraoperative morphine).
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
- Exclusion Criteria

1. Known allergy to morphine or ketamine.

2. Past history of major psychiatric disturbance or currently taking psychiatric

3. Chronic morphine usage.

4. Chronic pain syndrome or chronic painful medical condition.

5. Unable to obtain a reliable pain score in recovery due to language barriers or
residual anaesthesia.

6. Known pregnancy.

7. Cases where primary anaesthetist prefers alternate therapy.

8. Aged less than 18 years.

9. Weight less than 50 kilograms or greater than 100 kilograms.

10. Use of ketamine intraoperatively.

11. Use of major regional block.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Phase 4
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Data analysis
Reason for early stopping/withdrawal
Other reasons
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 0 0
The Alfred Commercial Rd Prahran - Melbourne
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 0 0
3181 - Melbourne

Funding & Sponsors
Primary sponsor type
Bayside Health

Ethics approval
Ethics application status

Brief summary
This clinical trial will determine if postoperative patients who have postoperative pain,
which has been refractory to morphine administration, will have improved pain relief
following a bolus administration of ketamine as compared with an ongoing morphine dosing
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Mercadante S, Portenoy RK. Opioid poorly-responsive cancer pain. Part 2: basic mechanisms that could shift dose response for analgesia. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2001 Mar;21(3):255-64. Review.
Myles PS, Hunt JO, Nightingale CE, Fletcher H, Beh T, Tanil D, Nagy A, Rubinstein A, Ponsford JL. Development and psychometric testing of a quality of recovery score after general anesthesia and surgery in adults. Anesth Analg. 1999 Jan;88(1):83-90.
Macrae W A, Davies H T O Chronic post surgical pain Epidemiology of Pain edited by Crombie I K. IASP Press. Seattle 1999. 125 - 142
Reeves M, Lindholm DE, Myles PS, Fletcher H, Hunt JO. Adding ketamine to morphine for patient-controlled analgesia after major abdominal surgery: a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2001 Jul;93(1):116-20.
Marcus RJ, Victoria BA, Rushman SC, Thompson JP. Comparison of ketamine and morphine for analgesia after tonsillectomy in children. Br J Anaesth. 2000 Jun;84(6):739-42.
Javery KB, Ussery TW, Steger HG, Colclough GW. Comparison of morphine and morphine with ketamine for postoperative analgesia. Can J Anaesth. 1996 Mar;43(3):212-5.
Adriaenssens G, Vermeyen KM, Hoffmann VL, Mertens E, Adriaensen HF. Postoperative analgesia with i.v. patient-controlled morphine: effect of adding ketamine. Br J Anaesth. 1999 Sep;83(3):393-6.
Schmid RL, Sandler AN, Katz J. Use and efficacy of low-dose ketamine in the management of acute postoperative pain: a review of current techniques and outcomes. Pain. 1999 Aug;82(2):111-125. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00044-5. Review.
Azevedo VM, Lauretti GR, Pereira NL, Reis MP. Transdermal ketamine as an adjuvant for postoperative analgesia after abdominal gynecological surgery using lidocaine epidural blockade. Anesth Analg. 2000 Dec;91(6):1479-82.
Aida S, Yamakura T, Baba H, Taga K, Fukuda S, Shimoji K. Preemptive analgesia by intravenous low-dose ketamine and epidural morphine in gastrectomy: a randomized double-blind study. Anesthesiology. 2000 Jun;92(6):1624-30.
Stubhaug A, Breivik H, Eide PK, Kreunen M, Foss A. Mapping of punctuate hyperalgesia around a surgical incision demonstrates that ketamine is a powerful suppressor of central sensitization to pain following surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997 Oct;41(9):1124-32.
Mercadante S, Arcuri E, Tirelli W, Casuccio A. Analgesic effect of intravenous ketamine in cancer patients on morphine therapy: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover, double-dose study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Oct;20(4):246-52.
Arendt-Nielsen L, Petersen-Felix S, Fischer M, Bak P, Bjerring P, Zbinden AM. The effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist (ketamine) on single and repeated nociceptive stimuli: a placebo-controlled experimental human study. Anesth Analg. 1995 Jul;81(1):63-8.
Owen H, Reekie RM, Clements JA, Watson R, Nimmo WS. Analgesia from morphine and ketamine. A comparison of infusions of morphine and ketamine for postoperative analgesia. Anaesthesia. 1987 Oct;42(10):1051-6.
Clements JA, Nimmo WS. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ketamine in man. Br J Anaesth. 1981 Jan;53(1):27-30.
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 0 0
David E Lindholm, MBBS FANZCA
Address 0 0
The Alfred
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 0 0
Address 0 0
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for scientific queries

Summary results
Other publications