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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Investigation of the effects of cues to action on participation in colorectal (CRC) screening - the role of implementation intentions
Scientific title
Population-based colorectal cancer screening - does the provision of cues to action, compared to no provision, lead to increased rates of faecal occult blood test kit completion?
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Cues to Action
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) 1641 0
Condition category
Condition code
Cancer 1751 1751 0 0
Bowel - Back passage (rectum) or large bowel (colon)

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Fecal Immunochemical Tests (FIT) will be mailed to participants. An implementation plan will be included for the 3 intervention groups. The implementation plans provided serve as 'cues to action' to provide a plan for goal achievement. Two intervention groups will receive an implementation plan that asks participants to think about, for example, how they will remember to do the test and to write down how they will remind themselves. One group will send a copy of this plan back to CSIRO, the other group will retain the plan. The 'prescriptive' implementation plan will 'tell' participants how to act, eg "place a reminder in a prominent place so that you do not forget to use the kit".

Intervention 1: FIT kit + implementation plan to complete and retain. Receipt of completed kit by Bowel Health Service (BHS) within 35 days
Intervention 2: FIT kit + implementation plan to complete and return to CSIRO. Receipt of completed kit by Bowel Health Service (BHS) within 35 days
Intervention 3: FIT kit + prescriptive implementation plan to complete and return to CSIRO. Receipt of completed kit by Bowel Health Service (BHS) within 35 days
Intervention code [1] 495 0
Comparator / control treatment
Control: FIT kit only. Receipt of completed kit by Bowel Health Service (BHS) within 35 days
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 2440 0
Return of completed FIT kit
Timepoint [1] 2440 0
Within 35 days of receipt by participant
Secondary outcome [1] 4211 0
Self efficacy: Receipt of completed questionnaire by CSIRO (BHS) within 35 days of receipt by participant. The effects of increasing levels of directedness in the formation of behaviour intentions (individually specified plan for behaviour versus behaviour plan specified by the researcher).
Timepoint [1] 4211 0
Receipt of completed kit by Bowel Health Service (BHS) within 35 days.

Key inclusion criteria
Never diagnosed with polyps or colorectal cancer.
Minimum age
50 Years
Maximum age
76 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Current participation in regular program of screening for CRC, those whose address indicates that they reside in a nursing home.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Allocation to intervention was performed by central randomisation by computer prior to the participant being approached. The recruiting interviewer was unaware of an individual's allocation until they reached that part of the computer-assisted interview which provided details of the particular intervention which the participant (after having been determined for eligibility) could expect.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
The sample was stratified by gender. Thereafter, simple randomisation by using a randomisation table created by a computer software (i.e., computerised sequence generation) was used for allocation to intervention group.
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Participants will be unaware of other types of interventions being trialled, apart from what they are being asked to do.
Phase 1
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Active, not recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 1902 0
Government body
Name [1] 1902 0
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation (CSIRO) Preventative Health Flagship
Address [1] 1902 0
Country [1] 1902 0
Primary sponsor type
Government body
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Preventative Health Flagship
Secondary sponsor category [1] 1717 0
Name [1] 1717 0
Address [1] 1717 0
Country [1] 1717 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 3548 0
CSIRO Human Nutrition
Ethics committee address [1] 3548 0
Ethics committee country [1] 3548 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 3548 0
Approval date [1] 3548 0
Ethics approval number [1] 3548 0

Brief summary
The aim of the study is to investigate the role of cues to actions in motivating participation in screening for colorecetal cancer (CRC) using the faecal occult blood test (FOBT). Specifically, the focus in this study is upon the effect of 'implementation intentions', a practical concept which attempts to move individuals from a generalised intention to undertake screening to the formulation of a plan which deliberately deals with the concrete details necessary for actually carrying out the screening behaviour. It is hypothesised that those who draw up a plan of how they will go about completing the FOBT are more likely to return a completed kit compared to those who do not draw up a plan. The project fits in with the broader aim of attempting to understand the factors that motivate people to participate in CRC screening, and serves as a fundamental basis for tailoring consumer information designed to increase participation in CRC screening technologies.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 35297 0
Address 35297 0
Country 35297 0
Phone 35297 0
Fax 35297 0
Email 35297 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 9684 0
Ingrid Flight
Address 9684 0
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Human Nutrition
PO Box 10041
Adelaide BC SA 5000
Country 9684 0
Phone 9684 0
+61 8 83038881
Fax 9684 0
+61 8 83038899
Email 9684 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 612 0
Dr Carlene Wilson
Address 612 0
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Human Nutrition
PO Box 10041
Adelaide BC SA 5000
Country 612 0
Phone 612 0
+61 8 830338906
Fax 612 0
+61 8 83038899
Email 612 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary