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Trial details imported from

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Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated

Titles & IDs
Public title
Effects of Sitagliptin on Gastric Emptying, Glycaemia and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes
Scientific title
Effects of Sitagliptin on Postprandial Glycaemia, Incretin Hormones and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes - Relationship to Gastric Emptying
Secondary ID [1] 0 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Gastroparesis 0 0
Diabetes Mellitus 0 0
Condition category
Condition code
Oral and Gastrointestinal 0 0 0 0
Other diseases of the mouth, teeth, oesophagus, digestive system including liver and colon
Neurological 0 0 0 0
Other neurological disorders
Metabolic and Endocrine 0 0 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Treatment: Drugs - Sitagliptin
Treatment: Drugs - Placebo

Experimental: Sitaglipltin (100mg) - Active drug (sitagliptin)

Placebo Comparator: Placebo (sugar pill) - Inactive drug (placebo)

Treatment: Drugs: Sitagliptin
100mg mane for 2 days

Treatment: Drugs: Placebo
Inactive drug (Placebo)

Intervention code [1] 0 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 0 0
Gastric emptying - Gastric retention (percent in the total stomach)
Timepoint [1] 0 0
3 hours per gastric emptying study (i.e. 6 hours)
Secondary outcome [1] 0 0
Glycaemia - blood glucose (mmol/L) and plasma insulin (mU/L)
Timepoint [1] 0 0
4 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 8 hours)
Secondary outcome [2] 0 0
Gastrointestinal hormone release - GLP-1, GIP, C-peptide, 3-OMG
Timepoint [2] 0 0
4 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 8 hours)
Secondary outcome [3] 0 0
Intragastric meal distribution - percent retention in the proximal and distal stomach
Timepoint [3] 0 0
3 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 6 hours)
Secondary outcome [4] 0 0
Blood pressure - systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Timepoint [4] 0 0
4.5 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 9 hours)
Secondary outcome [5] 0 0
Heart rate - Heart rate (beats per minute)
Timepoint [5] 0 0
4.5 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 9 hours)
Secondary outcome [6] 0 0
Splanchnic blood flow - Doppler ultrasound of superior mesenteric artery flow (ml/min)
Timepoint [6] 0 0
4 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 8 hours)
Secondary outcome [7] 0 0
Cardiac output - Finapres (L)
Timepoint [7] 0 0
4 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 8 hours)
Secondary outcome [8] 0 0
Stroke volume - Finapres (mL)
Timepoint [8] 0 0
4 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 8 hours)
Secondary outcome [9] 0 0
Appetite - visual analogue questionnaire to assess hunger, fullness, desire to eat (mm)
Timepoint [9] 0 0
4 hours during each gastric empty study (i.e. 8 hours)

Key inclusion criteria
- Type 2 diabetes (World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria), managed by diet or
metformin alone

- Body mass index (BMI) 20 - 40 kg/m2

- Males and females (females of reproductive potential must be using an appropriate
contraceptive method)

- Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) = 8.5%

- Haemoglobin above the lower limit of the normal range (i.e. >135g/L for men and 115g/L
for women), and ferritin above the lower limit of normal (i.e. >10mcg/L)
Minimum age
40 Years
Maximum age
80 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
- Subjects with gastrointestinal disease, significant upper or lower gastrointestinal
symptoms, or previous gastrointestinal surgery (other than uncomplicated
appendicectomy or cholecystectomy)

- Other significant illness, including epilepsy, cardiovascular or respiratory disease.

- History of unexplained pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatectomy.

- Impaired renal or liver function (as assessed by calculated creatinine clearance < 50
mL/min using the Cockroft-Gault equation (27) or abnormal liver function tests (> 2
times upper limit of normal range)).

- Requirement for medication known to influence blood pressure and/or heart rate and/or
gastrointestinal function, drugs with anticholinergic effects

- Alcohol consumption > 20 g per day

- Smoking > 10 cigarettes per day

- Pregnancy or lactation.

- Vegetarian

- Allergy to sitagliptin or any other 'gliptin'.

- Donation of blood within the previous 3 months

- Participation in any other research studies within the previous 3 months

- Exposure to ionising radiation for research purposes in the previous 12 months

- Inability to give informed consent

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?
The people receiving the treatment/s

The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Phase 2
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Data analysis
Reason for early stopping/withdrawal
Other reasons
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 0 0
University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital - Adelaide
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 0 0
5000 - Adelaide

Funding & Sponsors
Primary sponsor type
Royal Adelaide Hospital

Ethics approval
Ethics application status

Brief summary
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acute effects of sitagliptin on postprandial
glycemia, incretin hormones and blood pressure, and the relationship to gastric emptying,
after a mashed potato meal in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Wu T, Rayner CK, Young RL, Horowitz M. Gut motility and enteroendocrine secretion. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;13(6):928-34. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2013.09.002. Epub 2013 Sep 20. Review.
Chaikomin R, Rayner CK, Jones KL, Horowitz M. Upper gastrointestinal function and glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep 21;12(35):5611-21. Review.
Horowitz M, Edelbroek MA, Wishart JM, Straathof JW. Relationship between oral glucose tolerance and gastric emptying in normal healthy subjects. Diabetologia. 1993 Sep;36(9):857-62.
Jones KL, Horowitz M, Carney BI, Wishart JM, Guha S, Green L. Gastric emptying in early noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Nucl Med. 1996 Oct;37(10):1643-8.
Horowitz M, Rayner CK, Jones KL. Mechanisms and clinical efficacy of lixisenatide for the management of type 2 diabetes. Adv Ther. 2013 Feb;30(2):81-101. doi: 10.1007/s12325-013-0009-4. Epub 2013 Feb 13. Review.
Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Biology of incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology. 2007 May;132(6):2131-57. Review.
Nauck M, Stöckmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia. 1986 Jan;29(1):46-52.
Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jan;91(1):301-7.
Nauck MA, Niedereichholz U, Ettler R, Holst JJ, Orskov C, Ritzel R, Schmiegel WH. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5):E981-8. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1997.273.5.E981.
Khoo J, Rayner CK, Jones KL, Horowitz M. Incretin-based therapies: new treatments for type 2 diabetes in the new millennium. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009 Jun;5(3):683-98. Epub 2009 Aug 20.
Stevens JE, Horowitz M, Deacon CF, Nauck M, Rayner CK, Jones KL. The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Aug;36(4):379-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05198.x. Epub 2012 Jun 28.
Vella A, Bock G, Giesler PD, Burton DB, Serra DB, Saylan ML, Dunning BE, Foley JE, Rizza RA, Camilleri M. Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition on gastrointestinal function, meal appearance, and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2007 May;56(5):1475-80. Epub 2007 Feb 15.
Woerle H, Lindenberger T, Linke R, Foley JE, Ligueros-Sayalan AA, ZhangY, He Y-L, BelingerC, Goeke B, Schirra J. A single dose of vidagliptin (VILDA) decelerates gastric emptying (GE) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). American Diabetes Association, 67th Scientific Sessions 500-p (abstract), 2007.
Wu T, Bound MJ, Zhao BR, Standfield SD, Bellon M, Jones KL, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. Effects of a D-xylose preload with or without sitagliptin on gastric emptying, glucagon-like peptide-1, and postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jul;36(7):1913-8. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2294. Epub 2013 Jan 28.
Rayner CK, Samsom M, Jones KL, Horowitz M. Relationships of upper gastrointestinal motor and sensory function with glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2001 Feb;24(2):371-81. Review.
Pilichiewicz AN, Chaikomin R, Brennan IM, Wishart JM, Rayner CK, Jones KL, Smout AJ, Horowitz M, Feinle-Bisset C. Load-dependent effects of duodenal glucose on glycemia, gastrointestinal hormones, antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in healthy men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;293(3):E743-53. Epub 2007 Jul 3.
Ma J, Pilichiewicz AN, Feinle-Bisset C, Wishart JM, Jones KL, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. Effects of variations in duodenal glucose load on glycaemic, insulin, and incretin responses in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012 May;29(5):604-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03496.x.
Jansen RW, Lipsitz LA. Postprandial hypotension: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. Ann Intern Med. 1995 Feb 15;122(4):286-95. Review.
Jones KL, Tonkin A, Horowitz M, Wishart JM, Carney BI, Guha S, Green L. Rate of gastric emptying is a determinant of postprandial hypotension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Sci (Lond). 1998 Jan;94(1):65-70.
Russo A, Stevens JE, Wilson T, Wells F, Tonkin A, Horowitz M, Jones KL. Guar attenuates fall in postprandial blood pressure and slows gastric emptying of oral glucose in type 2 diabetes. Dig Dis Sci. 2003 Jul;48(7):1221-9.
Vanis L, Gentilcore D, Rayner CK, Wishart JM, Horowitz M, Feinle-Bisset C, Jones KL. Effects of small intestinal glucose load on blood pressure, splanchnic blood flow, glycemia, and GLP-1 release in healthy older subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Jun;300(6):R1524-31. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00378.2010. Epub 2011 Mar 9.
Jian ZJ, Zhou BY. Efficacy and safety of acarbose in the treatment of elderly patients with postprandial hypotension. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Oct 20;121(20):2054-9.
Sasaki E, Goda K, Nagata K, Kitaoka H, Ohsawa N, Hanafusa T. Acarbose improved severe postprandial hypotension in a patient with diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications. 2001 May-Jun;15(3):158-61.
Gentilcore D, Bryant B, Wishart JM, Morris HA, Horowitz M, Jones KL. Acarbose attenuates the hypotensive response to sucrose and slows gastric emptying in the elderly. Am J Med. 2005 Nov;118(11):1289.
Yonenaga A, Ota H, Honda M, Koshiyama D, Yagi T, Hanaoka Y, Yamamoto H, Yamaguchi Y, Iijima K, Akishita M, Ouchi Y. Marked improvement of elderly postprandial hypotension by dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Jan;13(1):227-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00903.x.
Cockcroft DW, Gault MH. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron. 1976;16(1):31-41.
Trahair LG, Vanis L, Gentilcore D, Lange K, Rayner CK, Horowitz M, Jones KL. Effects of variations in duodenal glucose load on blood pressure, heart rate, superior mesenteric artery blood flow and plasma noradrenaline in healthy young and older subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Mar;122(6):271-9. doi: 10.1042/CS20110270.
Parker BA, Sturm K, MacIntosh CG, Feinle C, Horowitz M, Chapman IM. Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb;58(2):212-8.
Ahrén B. DPP-4 inhibitors. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec;21(4):517-33. Review.
Information JsP: Merck Sharp & Dohme (Australia) Pty Ltd. South Granville, NSW, Australia, 2008.
Deacon CF. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a comparative review. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Jan;13(1):7-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01306.x. Review.
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 0 0
Karen L Jones, DAppSci, PhD
Address 0 0
University of Adelaide
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 0 0
Address 0 0
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for scientific queries

Summary results
Other publications