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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
The effect of plant and insect proteins on satiety
Scientific title
The effect of plant and insect proteins on satiety in healthy adults
Secondary ID [1] 304273 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Satiety 322002 0
Condition category
Condition code
Diet and Nutrition 319721 319721 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
There are three intervention treatments in this study and one control treatment. Each intervention treatment is the consumption of white bread formulated with added protein. The proteins in each bread are derived from pea, crickets or whey. Each protein will replace 10% of the wheat flour from a standard recipe (see control treatment). There will be a washout period of at least 24 hours between the treatments.

The dose of bread that participants will receive is 9% of their estimated energy requirement, which is calculated based on their age, sex, and habitual physical activity.

Participants will be provided with each treatment on seperate days at the CASS Food Research Centre in Deakin University Burwood. They must consume the portion of bread in its entirety within 30 minutes. Ad libitum intake of water will be allowed. This will be conducted in the presence of the principle researcher, who has 7 years experience in sensory testing in this facility. Participants will be supervised to ensure full consumption of the bread.

Participants will need to have fasted for at least 10 hours prior to their appointments. Compliance to this will be checked verbally as they arrive at the facility, and again digitally during the completion of an appetite questionnaire (discussed in the Outcomes section).
Intervention code [1] 320613 0
Treatment: Other
Comparator / control treatment
The control treatment is the consumption of a standard white bread made using a bread maker according to the manufacturer's suggested recipe (Panasonic SD-2501).

Consumption of the control treatment will occur similarly to the intervention treatments (see above for details).
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 327656 0
Self-reported appetite ratings rating using digital 100 mm visual analague scales including the following constructs: hunger, fullness, prospective consumption, and desire to eat
Timepoint [1] 327656 0
30 min prior to treatment commencement; and 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min (primary timepoint), 150 min & 180 min post treatment completion
Secondary outcome [1] 396123 0
Ratings of acceptability of the treatments using digital 9-point hedonic scales including the acceptability of the bread's appearance, odour, flavour and texture.
Timepoint [1] 396123 0
0 minutes post treatment completion

Key inclusion criteria
Individuals who are: fluent in English; willing to consume products containing wheat, dairy and insects.
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
55 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Inidividuals who are: smokers; pregnant or lactating; allergic and/or intolerant to wheat/gluten, dairy/lactose, and shellfish; following an energy-restricted diet; have an illness or condition that may prevent them from safely overnight fasting (e.g., diabetes mellitus)

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Treatments labelled with 3-digit blinding codes
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Simple randomisation using a randomisation table created by computer software
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?
The people receiving the treatment/s

The people assessing the outcomes
The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
Forty participants was chosen as a sample size due to similar studies in the discipline using a similar number of subjects.
Linear mixed models will be used to assess the effect of treatment over time, including treatment, time and treatment*time interaction as fixed effects, and participant ID is a mixed effect. Area-under-the-curve for each treatment will also be calculated and a one-way ANOVA will be used to compare the overall satiating effect of each treatment.

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 34165 0
3125 - Burwood

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 308650 0
Name [1] 308650 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
Address [1] 308650 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125
Country [1] 308650 0
Funding source category [2] 308696 0
Name [2] 308696 0
CASS Food Research Centre
Address [2] 308696 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125
Country [2] 308696 0
Primary sponsor type
Dr Andrew Costanzo
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125
Secondary sponsor category [1] 309580 0
Name [1] 309580 0
Dr Shirani Gamlath
Address [1] 309580 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125
Country [1] 309580 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 308576 0
Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 308576 0
Research Ethics, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125
Ethics committee country [1] 308576 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 308576 0
Approval date [1] 308576 0
Ethics approval number [1] 308576 0

Brief summary
High protein diets are effective at helping individuals maintain a healthy weight due to being highly satiating compared to other macronutrients. Supplementing protein into staple foods that are easily affordable, such as bread, is an easy way to incorporate added protein into a diet. However, it is difficult to recommend increasing protein intake at a population level because current farming practises that produce high-protein products from livestock are not sustainable, especially when considering climate change and increasing populations worldwide.
Due to this, high-protein products made from livestock are becoming more expensive and less attainable. Proteins produced from sources other than livestock, such as plants and insects, are becoming more favourable as their production has a lower ecological footprint. However, the satiating effects of proteins are not necessarily equal, and it is unclear whether proteins from plants and insects are able to add a significant satiating effect when supplemented into staple foods. This study will assess the satiating effects plant and insect proteins within a staple food product compared to proteins derived from livestock.

Participation in this study will involve attending four 30-minute morning sessions at the CASS Food Research Centre in Deakin University Burwood Campus.

Before each session, participants will:
• Need to fast for at least 10 hours (overnight).

During each session, participants will:
• Have their height and weight assessed (this will only occur during the first session).
• Be provided with a moderate serving of bread which will be based on their estimated energy requirements which they will need to eat in its entirety.
• Complete questionnaires about their liking of the bread and their appetite (approx. 2 minutes).

After each session, participants will:
• Complete additional appetite questionnaires every 30 minutes over the next 3 hours (approx. 2 minutes each).
• Refrain from eating, drinking anything other than water, or doing any moderate to vigorous physical activity during this 3-hour period.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 111198 0
Dr Andrew Costanzo
Address 111198 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC 3125
Country 111198 0
Phone 111198 0
+61 3 9246 8207
Fax 111198 0
Email 111198 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 111199 0
Dr Andrew Costanzo
Address 111199 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC 3125
Country 111199 0
Phone 111199 0
+61 3 9246 8207
Fax 111199 0
Email 111199 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 111200 0
Dr Andrew Costanzo
Address 111200 0
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC 3125
Country 111200 0
Phone 111200 0
+61 3 9246 8207
Fax 111200 0
Email 111200 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
What data in particular will be shared?
The entire cleaned dataset used for analysis including treatment and outcomes for each participant
When will data be available (start and end dates)?
Immediately following publication, no end date
Available to whom?
Only researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal
Available for what types of analyses?
Any purpose
How or where can data be obtained?
Access subject to approvals by Principal Investigator via emailing
What supporting documents are/will be available?
No other documents available
Summary results
No Results