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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Submitted, not yet approved
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Can motor imagery training improve strength and walking in older adults following discharge from rehabilitation?
Scientific title
The MITISAM study - Motor Imagery To Improve Strength And Mobility in older adults following discharge from rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial
Secondary ID [1] 298395 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Falls 313088 0
Fracture 313089 0
Condition category
Condition code
Musculoskeletal 311573 311573 0 0
Other muscular and skeletal disorders
Physical Medicine / Rehabilitation 311574 311574 0 0
Injuries and Accidents 311575 311575 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Once discharged home, participants in the control group will receive standard in-home care as provided by the subacute facility and/or community rehabilitation therapists. Participants in the experimental group will undertake 15 minutes of guided motor imagery training five times per week for six weeks in addition to the standard in-home care provided by the community rehabilitation therapists. The guided motor imagery will be provided in the form of narrated audio files and are accompanied by brief video clips of each task. The audio and video files will be uploaded onto a portable music player/tablet or the mobile phone of each participant and are set out as a schedule. A total of three or four tracks will be scheduled for each session to ensure each session is limited to 15 minutes. All imaging tasks and instructions are designed to get participants to imagine the movements from a first-person perspective and progress in difficulty during the program. The audio tracks will encourage participants to imagine themselves completing several strength and mobility related tasks such as squats and walking up stairs. Participants will be provided with an instruction booklet with a schedule of files to listen to on certain days and a checklist to monitor their progress during the program.
The motor imagery intervention was specifically designed for this study and target movements to improve lower limb strength and walking tasks.
Adherence will be monitored in two ways: 1) by participants completing a training diary, 2) monitoring track/video views on the electronic device using device analytics.
Intervention code [1] 314681 0
Treatment: Other
Intervention code [2] 314774 0
Comparator / control treatment
The control group will receive standard post-discharge care (standard care). Standard care typically involves community rehabilitation which is physiotherapy delivered one to two times per week in the home (or community centre). Participants will normally be prescribed a home exercise program to complete independently with standard care also.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 320326 0
Isometric Quadriceps strength using hand-held dynamometer
Timepoint [1] 320326 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge
Primary outcome [2] 320327 0
Isometric Calf strength using hand-held dynamometer
Timepoint [2] 320327 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge
Primary outcome [3] 320328 0
Timed up and Go (TUG) test to measure lower limb function
Timepoint [3] 320328 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge
Secondary outcome [1] 371259 0
Balance confidence - ABC 6
Timepoint [1] 371259 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge
Secondary outcome [2] 371260 0
Fear of falling - Fall efficacy scale international
Timepoint [2] 371260 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge
Secondary outcome [3] 371261 0
Functional independence measure
This assessment grades the functional status of a person based on the level of assistance required for dressing, walking stair etc.
Timepoint [3] 371261 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge
Secondary outcome [4] 371659 0
Kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaire (KVIQ)
This questionnaire requires participants to physically perform a motor task then imagine themselves competing that same task. they then rate how vivid their imagined movement was.
Timepoint [4] 371659 0
Baseline and 6 weeks post-discharge

Key inclusion criteria
Adults aged at least 65 years undertaking a minimum of two weeks rehabilitation
Minimum age
65 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
a neurological condition likely to impair mobility such as Parkinson’s disease or Multiple sclerosis; a history of stroke or untreated heart disease; impaired cognition (MMSE <24/30); profound hearing loss; or not willing or able to follow procedures specified by the study or instructions of the researcher

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Sealed opaque envelopes selected by participants in absence of investigators assessing outcome measures
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Permuted block randomisation
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

The people assessing the outcomes
The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 13947 0
Brighton Health Campus - Brighton
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 26715 0
4017 - Brighton

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 302937 0
Name [1] 302937 0
Australian Catholic University
Address [1] 302937 0
1100 Nudgee Road, Banyo QLD 4014
Country [1] 302937 0
Primary sponsor type
Brighton Health Campus
449 Hornibrook Hwy, Brighton QLD 4017
Secondary sponsor category [1] 302939 0
Name [1] 302939 0
Address [1] 302939 0
Country [1] 302939 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Submitted, not yet approved
Ethics committee name [1] 303499 0
The Prince Charles Hospital HREC
Ethics committee address [1] 303499 0
Building 14
Rode Road, Chermside QLD 4032
Ethics committee country [1] 303499 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 303499 0
Approval date [1] 303499 0
Ethics approval number [1] 303499 0

Brief summary
Motor imagery is the imagining of an action without its physical execution and motor imagery elicits activity in brain regions that are normally activated during actual task performance. Motor imagery has been shown to increase strength, improve mobility and promote motor learning in older adults. The primary aim of this research project is to identify whether the addition of six weeks of motor imagery training to standard physiotherapy care promotes improved outcomes compared to standard physiotherapy care alone in older adults following discharge form rehabilitation. Specifically, the project aims to determine whether the addition of motor imagery training promotes greater improvements in leg strength and mobility in older adults. Participants will undergo baseline testing two to three days prior to discharge from the facility, then again six weeks after discharge from the facility. Testing will involve assessments of leg strength, walking speed, imagined walking, and questionnaires relating to balance confidence and fear of falling. After baseline testing, participants will be randomly assigned to either standard care or standard care plus motor imagery. Upon discharge, participants in both groups will receive standard care as determined the community health care team (independent of research project). Those in the motor imagery group will also undertake 15 minutes of motor imagery training per day, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. The motor imagery training will be guided by audio tapes uploaded onto an electronic device (ie. phone, tablet). The motor imagery tracks guide participants to imagine doing lower limb strengthening activities and walking tasks.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 93874 0
Dr Vaughan Nicholson
Address 93874 0
School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane
1100 Nudgee Rd, Banyo QLD 4014
Country 93874 0
Phone 93874 0
+61 7 36237687
Fax 93874 0
Email 93874 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 93875 0
Dr Vaughan Nicholson
Address 93875 0
School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane
1100 Nudgee Rd, Banyo QLD 4014
Country 93875 0
Phone 93875 0
+61 7 36237687
Fax 93875 0
Email 93875 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 93876 0
Dr Vaughan Nicholson
Address 93876 0
School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane
1100 Nudgee Rd, Banyo QLD 4014
Country 93876 0
Phone 93876 0
+61 7 36237687
Fax 93876 0
Email 93876 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
What data in particular will be shared?
all of the individual participant data collected during the trial, after de-identification
When will data be available (start and end dates)?
Immediately following publication, no end date
Available to whom?
Researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal
Available for what types of analyses?
Only to achieve the aims in the approved proposal
How or where can data be obtained?
Access subject to approvals by Principal Investigator. Appropriate data will then be shared with the principal investigator via email or appropriate cloud storage.
What supporting documents are/will be available?
No other documents available
Summary results
No Results