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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Not yet submitted
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Are we giving appropriate dose of tranexamic acid in hip replacement surgery?
Scientific title
Optimising dosing of tranexamic acid to prevent excessive blood loss during hip replacement surgery
Secondary ID [1] 297894 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
PROPEL study
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Joint replacement surgery 312274 0
Condition category
Condition code
Anaesthesiology 310823 310823 0 0
Other anaesthesiology

Study type
Patient registry
Target follow-up duration
Target follow-up type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Intravenous tranexamic acid 15 mg/kg is administered for hip replacements as a routine practice during hip replacement surgery.Twenty-four consenting patients aged greater than or equal to 18 years , who are undergoing elective unilateral primary hip replacements and receiving intravenous tranexamic acid 15 mg/kg at The Prince Charles Hospital will be enrolled. Blood samples will be collected at the time points: baseline, 5 minutes after tranexamic acid, skin incision, skin closure, 3 hours, 8 hours and 24 hours after tranexamic acid, for assessing tranexamic acid levels and to measure biomarkers to describe changes to the extent of fibrinolysis during surgery. This will involve additional blood samples at these time points. If there is existing cannula, blood samples will be drawn from them. Participants will be observed from induction of anaesthesia until 24 hours following surgery. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model will be developed on the concentration-time data generated and fibrinolysis biomarkers, using the software PMetrics, from which dosing simulations will be performed and recommendations for effective dosing of tranexamic acid will be obtained.
Intervention code [1] 314121 0
Not applicable
Comparator / control treatment
No control group
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 319662 0
Plasma concentration of tranexamic acid at various time points.
Timepoint [1] 319662 0
at baseline, post tranexamic acid administration - at 5 minutes, skin incision, skin closure, 3 hours, 8 hours
Primary outcome [2] 319673 0
Tranexamic acid exposure time, when plasma concentration of tranexamic acid is above the minimum threshold.
Timepoint [2] 319673 0
until 8 hours post tranexamic acid administration
Secondary outcome [1] 369130 0
Degree of fibrinolysis

This will be assessed using ROTEM, PAP complex levels, clot lysis assays, D-dimer levels.
Timepoint [1] 369130 0
baseline, post Tranexamic acid administration: skin incision, skin closure, 8 hours, 24 hours.
Secondary outcome [2] 369131 0
total number of blood and blood products transfused until discharge, as per the information obtained from the blood bank
Timepoint [2] 369131 0
All these outcomes will be collected before surgery and at discharge
Secondary outcome [3] 369711 0
Difference between baseline and lowest postoperative haemoglobin, as assessed by laboratory testing of blood samples. These are routinely done for orthopaedic patients as a standard of care.
Timepoint [3] 369711 0
Presurgery and at discharge
Secondary outcome [4] 369712 0
Length of hospital stay as documented in medical records
Timepoint [4] 369712 0
at discharge
Secondary outcome [5] 369713 0
Major clinical adverse events as documented in the records by the parent team.These include but not limited to myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, stroke, mortality
Timepoint [5] 369713 0
data will be collected at discharge
Secondary outcome [6] 369714 0
Anaemia as calculated from the haemoglobin results.
Timepoint [6] 369714 0
baseline and at discharge
Secondary outcome [7] 369715 0
Estimated blood loss with Gross formula ( Gross et al, Anaesthesiology, 1983)

Estimated blood volume multiplied by the ratio between the initial haematocrit- final haematocrit/ average of initial and minimum haematocrit.

Estimated blood volume using Nadler's formula ( Nadler et al, Surgery, 1962)

Timepoint [7] 369715 0
3 days following surgery

Key inclusion criteria
Patient undergoing unilateral primary total hip replacment and receiving tranexamic acid; Age greater than or equal to 18 years old; Written informed consent obtained from the patient
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Consent not obtained; Patients in whom tranexamic acid would be contraindicated such as cerebrovascular or coronary event in the past 12 months, end stage renal disease, those at a very high risk of thromboembolism, or documented allergy etc; Patients with communication barrier due to language issues; Urgent arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty due to hip fractures; Bilateral THR

Study design
Defined population
Statistical methods / analysis
We aim to enrol 24 patients undergoing primary total hip replacements and receiving tranexamic acid. The pharmacokinetics of TXA and the ability to achieve pharmacodynamic target of the concentration to achieve fibrinolysis will be determined using a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling approach using using PMetrics 1.5.0 with RStudio 0.99.902 and digital compiler Gfortran 5.2. Additionally, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model will aim to determine if significant correlations exist between demographic and clinical factors on the pharmacokinetics of TXA. If one or more of the variables are found to have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of the drug, then it can be incorporated into the final pharmacokinetic model. Other statistical analyses to test the secondary aims will be tested with Mann-Whitney U tests or Students t-test where appropriate using the statistical package, SPSS (version 17.0, Illinois, USA).

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 13568 0
The Prince Charles Hospital - Chermside
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 26214 0
4032 - Chermside

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 302423 0
Name [1] 302423 0
The Prince Charles Hospital
Address [1] 302423 0
Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland- 4032
Country [1] 302423 0
Primary sponsor type
Usha Gurunathan
Department of Anaesthesia, The Prince charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside , Queensland - 4032
Secondary sponsor category [1] 302323 0
Name [1] 302323 0
Address [1] 302323 0
Country [1] 302323 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Not yet submitted
Ethics committee name [1] 303084 0
The Prince Charles Hospital Human Research Ethics committee
Ethics committee address [1] 303084 0
The Prince Charles Hospital Research and Ethics, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland- 4032
Ethics committee country [1] 303084 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 303084 0
Approval date [1] 303084 0
Ethics approval number [1] 303084 0

Brief summary
According to the annual report from national joint replacement registry, around 32000 primary total hip replacements (THR) have been performed in 2017 in Australia. Reported prevalence of blood transfusion in THR is around 24%. Blood transfusions are associated with infectious risk and complications such as acute lung injury, and acute or delayed immune responses. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used for its anti- fibrinolytic effect in major joint replacement surgery. It has been shown to prevent excess bleeding and reduce the risk of blood transfusion following lower limb joint replacements. Current dosing of TXA for joint replacement surgery is not based on rigorous scientific evidence and dosing based on bleeding endpoints may be sub-optimal. In this study, we propose investigating the use of biomarkers to describe the extent of fibrinolysis as dosing endpoints for the physiological effect of TXA. From this, we will provide recommendations for effective dosing regimens of TXA in patients undergoing THR.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 92414 0
Dr Usha Gurunathan
Address 92414 0
Department of Anaesthesia, The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland - 4032
Country 92414 0
Phone 92414 0
+61 7 3139 4000
Fax 92414 0
Email 92414 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 92415 0
Dr Usha Gurunathan
Address 92415 0
Department of Anaesthesia, The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland - 4032
Country 92415 0
Phone 92415 0
+61 7 3139 4000
Fax 92415 0
Email 92415 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 92416 0
Dr Usha Gurunathan
Address 92416 0
Department of Anaesthesia, The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland - 4032
Country 92416 0
Phone 92416 0
+61 7 3139 4000
Fax 92416 0
Email 92416 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
Individual participant data is not useful to the public
What supporting documents are/will be available?
No other documents available
Summary results
No Results