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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Date results information initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
The MASTER Coaching Program: Creating positive sporting experiences for players through coach education in football
Scientific title
The MASTER Coaching Program: Creating positive sporting experiences for players through coach education in football
Secondary ID [1] 297780 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record
This study is an extension of the MASTER Coaching study ACTRN12618000673246

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Mental Health 312129 0
Wellbeing 312130 0
Condition category
Condition code
Mental Health 310683 310683 0 0
Other mental health disorders

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Randomized Controlled Trail
* Four football clubs
* All volunteer coaches (of teams aged 9 years to 16 years) in the club will be invited to participate (n=20)
* Coaches will be randomized to the intervention or wait list control
* Coach Intervention Includes:
- 4 hour coaching workshop delivered by the research team (week 1)
- 8 week coach mentoring (on-line and face-to-face) (weeks 1-8)
- 2 hour coach assessment session / discussion with the research team (week 4)
- 2 (minimum) sessions peer assessed coaching / discussions (conducted during weeks 6-8)
* Control group will receive the coaching program once the 8 week intervention and all follow-up assessments have been completed

Detail on the MASTER program
1. The research team will deliver a 4 hour theory and practical coach development workshop at the start of the MASTER coaching program. This includes a powerpoint lecture, discussion, demonstrations of training activities, individual and group session planning activities.This session will be conducted at the University and will include an educational presentation of the theoretical underpinnings around the development of positive coaching practices, and a practical session providing coaches with training on how to effectively implement positive coaching practices within training sessions.

2. Coaches will train their netball teams over the following 8-weeks using the MASTER Framework and developed coaching practices within their normal training sessions and will be provided with on-going support and mentoring from the research team (on-line and or face-to face). This includes discussion forums and the provision of training activities and ideas (posted by the research team). Coaches are asked to engage in the online discussions (but not mandatory) and will have access to the mentor for face to face help or for advice at any time on request.

3. After 4 weeks, a 2 hour coach assessment session / discussion with be conducted by the research team to provide more training on the MASTER coaching principles (more examples and practical application discussed and practiced) and on evaluation of coaching practices. This will be conducted at the training venue at a time to be confirmed by the club.

4. In the final three weeks of training , coaches will pair up to assess coaching practices during normal weekly training sessions using the MASTER framework, and discussions coaching practices in a reflective manner - a minimum of 2 peer observations will be conducted per coach.

Attendance to all MASTER program sessions will be recorded.

MASTER Framework
M = maximise player activity (coach provides clear, concise and focused coaching instructions and demonstrations; coach engages all players in activities)
A = Activate learning (WHAT (is the game, or skill/s being learned and developed);WHY (players should play the game, or develop the skill/s); WHEN and/or WHERE (the skills being developed are used in the game); HOW (do you perform this well – what is a quality performance?)
S = Strengths based (Coach optimises the challenge within sessions for all players; Coach is positive; Coach promotes ‘attempt is success’ mindset)
T = Thinking players (Coach uses opposed activities (i.e. one or more defender); Coach uses questioning to facilitate learning; Coach promotes creativity)
E = Engage players (Coach has a ‘presence’ (e.g. voice projection, energy, humour); Coach uses varied, challenging and enjoyable activities; Coach utilises a ‘hook’ to enhance motivation)
R = Reflection (Coach facilitates player reflection; Coach uses reflection from previous session to inform current and / or future sessions)
Intervention code [1] 314017 0
Comparator / control treatment
Wait -list control. Coaches will continue with their normal coaching practices during the intervention period. They will receive the intervention once all follow up assessments are completed. Control Coaches will receive the program after 10weeks from baseline assessments
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 319529 0
Coach practices (composite outcome) Coaches are video recorded and analysed using the 'Coaching for learning analysis system' by a trained research assistant in terms of the percentage of training session time spent in training form or playing form activities, types of feedback provided to players by the coach, type of / time spend intervening in sessions, active learning time of players during sessions.
Timepoint [1] 319529 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Primary outcome [2] 319530 0
Players Enjoyment assessed 16 item PACES Questionnaire (Physical Activity Children’s Enjoyment Scale) (Motl et al., 2009)
Timepoint [2] 319530 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Primary outcome [3] 319531 0
Player perceived competence assessed by Athlete Competence subscale of the Self-perception Profile for Children – 6 items
Timepoint [3] 319531 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [1] 368588 0
Coach competence assessed by a purpose designed questionnaire
Timepoint [1] 368588 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments

Key inclusion criteria
Coaches from the NNSW Football region currently coaching 8-12 years at the club level and their players(with written informed consent)
Minimum age
16 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Central randomisation using a computer at the University was performed after baseline assessments
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Coaches where grouped by team level and randomly assigned by an individual not linked to the research project using a simple randomisation procedures (individual pulled names from hat)

Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
All analyses will be conducted using the statistical software package IBM SPSS 21 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL) and alpha levels were set at p < 0.05. Independent samples t-tests will be performed on continuous variables (e.g. age) and chi-square tests performed on dichotomous variables (e.g. sex) for identifying differences between groups at baseline in key demographic and outcome variables. A descriptive analysis was conducted to assess retention, recruitment, adherence and satisfaction among participants. Linear mixed models will be fitted with an unstructured covariance structure to compare intervention and control groups for all outcomes (for the impact of group (intervention or control), time (treated as categorical with levels baseline and immediate post-intervention) and the group-by-time interaction.) Linear mixed models are consistent with the intention-to-treat principle (Mallinckrodt, Watkin, Molenberghs, Carroll, & Lilly, 2004). Cohen’s d effect size will be calculated (d= mean difference in change scores / pooled variance) and interpreted as: .20 = small, .50 = moderate and .80 = large effect.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 26078 0
2300 - Newcastle

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 302304 0
Other Collaborative groups
Name [1] 302304 0
Hunter Medial Research Institute
Address [1] 302304 0
Lot 1 Kookaburra Circuit
New Lambton Heights, NSW, Australia, 2305
Country [1] 302304 0
Primary sponsor type
University of Newcastle
University Dr, Callaghan NSW 2308
Secondary sponsor category [1] 302181 0
Name [1] 302181 0
Address [1] 302181 0
Country [1] 302181 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 302979 0
The University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 302979 0
University Dr, Callaghan NSW 2308
Ethics committee country [1] 302979 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 302979 0
Approval date [1] 302979 0
Ethics approval number [1] 302979 0

Brief summary
Evaluating the effectiveness of the coach education program for sporting coaches. The program centers around positive coaching to create engaging learning environments for players whilst increasing the active playing time for participants
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 92050 0
Dr Narelle Eather
Address 92050 0
The University of Newcastle
University Dr, Callaghan NSW 2308
Country 92050 0
Phone 92050 0
+61 249716232
Fax 92050 0
Email 92050 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 92051 0
Dr Narelle Eather
Address 92051 0
The University of Newcastle
University Dr, Callaghan NSW 2308
Country 92051 0
Phone 92051 0
+61 249716232
Fax 92051 0
Email 92051 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 92052 0
Dr Narelle Eather
Address 92052 0
The University of Newcastle
University Dr, Callaghan NSW 2308
Country 92052 0
Phone 92052 0
+61 249716232
Fax 92052 0
Email 92052 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
What supporting documents are/will be available?
Ethical approval
How or where can supporting documents be obtained?
Type [1] 7229 0
Ethical approval
Citation [1] 7229 0
Link [1] 7229 0
Email [1] 7229 0
Other [1] 7229 0
Attachment [1] 7229 0
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary