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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
A study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Rejuve (an injectable medical device) when treating low back (lumbar) pain due to Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) in symptomatic adults.
Scientific title
Genipin Microinvasive Device for Treatment of Low Back Pain from Degenerative Disc Disease- CE Marking Safety and Efficacy Study
Secondary ID [1] 297429 0
Nil known
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Chronic Low Back Pain 311602 0
Condition category
Condition code
Musculoskeletal 310230 310230 0 0
Other muscular and skeletal disorders

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Intervention Type- Device,
Intervention Name - Rejuve,
Intervention Description - Rejuve is an injectable medical device intended to treat intervertebral disc degeneration and associated low back pain by providing localized tissue reinforcement and mechanical stabilization. The Rejuve medical device is injected directly into the disc annulus fibrosus tissue. Rejuve contains a plant derived protein cross-linker (Genipin) that is injected as a buffered liquid combined with a contrast agent by a clinician experienced with image-guided injections to the spinal disc. The choice of contrast agent is left to the investigator. 180-370 mg/ml Isovue, Omnipaque, Iopamiro, and Ultravist have been previously tested. The clinician is provided with an injection training document, a virtual training session, detailed instructions for use, and optional cadaveric injection training. Rejuve is a single-use device comprising two 5 mL glass vials containing the sterile cross-linker and buffered solution. The components are combined with a contrast agent just prior to the fluoroscopic image-guided interventional procedure. The Rejuve cross-linker diffuses through the tissue and adds new covalent crosslink bonds to the native collagen matrix in the disc. The increased mechanical support to the tissue and intervertebral joint are intended to reduce or eliminate corresponding low back pain.
All study participants will undergo implantation of Rejuve at 1 or 2 symptomatic spinal levels during a single intervention session. The volume of Rejuve implanted is determined by the cross-sectional size of the target disc(s).
The procedure takes approximately 45 minutes or less.
Intervention code [1] 313681 0
Treatment: Devices
Comparator / control treatment
No control group
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 319112 0
Serious Adverse Events at 1 month.

Serious adverse events will be assessed by the site principal investigator and may include significant increase in low-back pain (NRS increase of 2 points or VAS increase of >20mm) over baseline level lasting more than 14 days, Indications of chronic inflammatory response, lasting more than 21 days and unresponsive to anti-inflammatory or neuropathic pain medicines, Any neuromuscular deterioration or other adverse response to treatment requiring subsequent treatment (excluding anti-inflammatory or neuropathic pain medication) and/or hospital stay, Any injection related serious adverse event including dural tear, hematoma with neurological involvement, nerve root involvement that persists more than 21 days and is unresponsive to anti-inflammatory or neuropathic or non-opioid pain medications, injection site irritation with drainage or infection and Intractable pain, urinary tract infection lasting more than 14 days, systemic infection, thromboembolic event, etc.
Timepoint [1] 319112 0
1-month post procedure (primary) assessed at 1-2 weeks, at 3 months, at 6 months, and at 12 months, post implantation.
Primary outcome [2] 319113 0
Change in pain assessed via numerical pain rating scale at 3 months compared with baseline using a Visual Analog Scale for low-back pain
Timepoint [2] 319113 0
3-months post-implantation.
Primary outcome [3] 319196 0
Change in disability assessed via Oswestry Disability Index rating at 3 months compared with baseline
Timepoint [3] 319196 0
3 months
Secondary outcome [1] 367008 0
Change in pain assessed via numerical pain rating scale at 1-2 weeks, 1 month, 6 and 12 months compared with baseline using a Visual Analog Scale for low-back pain
Timepoint [1] 367008 0
1-2 weeks, 1 month, 6 and 12 months
Secondary outcome [2] 367009 0
Change in disability assessed via Oswestry Disability Index rating at 1-2 weeks, 1, 6 and 12 months compared with baseline
Timepoint [2] 367009 0
1-2 weeks, 1 month, 6 and 12 months
Secondary outcome [3] 367246 0
Change in flexion-extension instability assessed via radiographic imaging and the QSI metric (Quantitative Stability Index, quantifies the number of standard deviations above the mean (of an asymptomatic, radiographically normal population) for a measured amount of translation per degree of rotation (TPDR)) at 1 and 3 months compared to baseline
Timepoint [3] 367246 0
1 month, 3 month

Key inclusion criteria
1. Adults within age range of 18-60 years
2. Degenerative Disc Disease at 1 or 2 levels between L2/3 and L5/S1 confirmed by:
a) Clinical presentation of discogenic pain, back > leg pain, with or without radiation to leg,
b) MRI correlative to the affected segment, and/or
c) Discography with concordant pain within 6 months
3. Failed non-operative treatment which may include injections or radio frequency denervation of medial lumbar and lateral sacral branches (failed response was considered when pain relief lasted less than or equal to three months)
4. Preoperative Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score for back pain greater than or equal to 5, or Visual Analog Score for back pain greater than or equal to 40 mm
5. Preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score greater than or equal to 40%
6. Documented symptoms for a cumulative minimum of 3 months
7. Participant is competent to sign the informed consent
8. Participant voluntarily signs the participant informed consent form and agrees to the release of medical information for purposes of this study
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
60 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
1. Symptomatic DDD at more than 2 levels
2. Less than 3 months of back pain
3. Previous diagnosed Paget's disease, Osteomalacia, other metabolic bone disease or Insulin-dependent Diabetes
4. Evidence of Spinal Osteopenia or Osteoporosis (radiographic or DEXA)
5. Active systemic or spine infection
6. Previous device or therapeutic interventions on the target disc (excluding those listed in the Inclusion Criteria)
7. Any surgery at the index level and any extensive surgery (fusion, laminectomy, artificial disc) at any level
8. Chronic steroid use (except for inhaled steroids)
9. Other diagnosed causes of back pain or neuropathy such as vertebral fracture, facet joint or vertebral arch (Spondylolysis) generated pain, Rheumatoid Arthritis, cauda equine syndrome, spinal fracture within last 6 months, and sacroiliac joint pain.
10. Previous treatment of target disc level with steroid injection in past 3 months.
11. Active malignancy
12. Spinal tumor
13. Immune compromised participants
14. Lumbar scoliosis > 15 degrees
15. Disc Herniation > 5mm, symptomatic with radicular pain (neurological examination is abnormal, excluding diminished pin prick test)
16. Symptomatic Spinal Stenosis
17. Congenital or degenerative Spondylolisthesis (grade 2 and 3)
18. Severe uncontrolled psychological comorbidities (e.g., depression, anxiety, PTSD, borderline PD, schizophrenia, substance abuse)
19. Anticipated compliance problems (e.g., transportation, Dementia, computer illiteracy)
20. Currently participating in another investigational study that could interfere with the outcome measurements of this study
21. Known anaphylactic reaction to contrast dye
22. Opioid daily intake > 90 MEQ
23. Not able to communicate with study center staff sufficiently to complete study questionnaires
24. Positive urine pregnancy test
25. History of unexplained, easy or persistent bruising or bleeding, bleeding from the gums, or bleeding problems experienced in previous surgical procedures
26. Congenital or acquired coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia; or currently taking anticoagulant, antineoplastic, antiplatelet, or thrombocytopenia-inducing medications, or undergoing radiation therapy

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Single group
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
This study will enroll up to 50 participants. Based on the primary safety hypothesis that device related Serious Adverse Events at 1-month post-treatment will be less than 25%, Simon’s and Jung’s two-stage principles have been used to determine the first stage size, study stoppage criteria (4 or more device related serious adverse events in the first 16 participants), second stage size, and final assessment of treatment safety-- the null hypothesis will be rejected if 8 or more SAEs are observed in 49 patients (actual 16%). This design yields a type I error rate of 0.05 and power of 0.85 when the true rate of device related serious adverse events at 1-month post-procedure is 10% or less. Baseline clinical and participant features will be summarized using standard descriptive statistics including means, medians, standard deviations, ranges for continuous measures and frequencies and percentages for categorical measures. Adverse event data will be summarized as the frequency of events and the percentage of participants experiencing the event. Changes from baseline in the efficacy endpoints including pain and disability scales, instability, lumber range of motion, lordosis, medication use and quality of life, will be statistically evaluated using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests as appropriate. These differences will be summarized as means with 95% confidence intervals or medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs) as appropriate. A two-tailed p-value <0.05 will be used to determine statistical significance.

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 301999 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 301999 0
Intralink-Spine Australia Pty. Ltd.
Address [1] 301999 0
58 Gipps Street, Collingwood, VIC 3066
Country [1] 301999 0
Primary sponsor type
Commercial sector/Industry
Intralink-Spine Australia Pty. Ltd.
58 Gipps Street, Collingwood, VIC 3066
Secondary sponsor category [1] 301779 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 301779 0
Five Corners Pty. Ltd.
Address [1] 301779 0
13/76 Reserve Road, Artarmon, NSW 2064
Country [1] 301779 0
Other collaborator category [1] 280559 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 280559 0
Intralink-Spine, Inc.
Address [1] 280559 0
1501 Bull Lea Road, Suite 103 Lexington, KY 40511
Country [1] 280559 0
United States of America

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 302674 0
Bellberry Human Research Ethics Committee H
Ethics committee address [1] 302674 0
129 Glen Osmond Rd,
Eastwood, Adelaide, SA 5063
Ethics committee country [1] 302674 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 302674 0
Approval date [1] 302674 0
Ethics approval number [1] 302674 0

Brief summary
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of the Réjuve medical device when treating low back pain due to Degenerative Disc Disease in adults. Degenerative disc disease in the lower back refers to a syndrome in which a compromised or damaged disc causes low back pain with or without pain radiating to the leg. Réjuve is an injectable soluble material that is considered as a medical device. Réjuve chemically bonds with the collagen in the spinal disc tissue to structurally strengthen the degraded disc and stabilize the spinal joint. These tissue strengthening and joint stabilizing effects, if they occur to the extent intended, may reduce the amount of back pain that the study participant experiences. Réjuve contains a substance called Genipin that causes chemical bonding in load supporting tissues. These chemical bonds are similar to, and are intended to mimic, naturally-occurring chemical bonds in the tissue that typically accumulate in spinal discs over many years. Genipin is made from purified plant sources (Gardenia fruit) and is dissolved in a special buffer liquid prior to being injected into the spinal disc using image-guided injection techniques. A special dye called a contrast agent that is not part of Réjuve is also added to Réjuve before it is injected so that what is being injected can be seen by the physician doing the injection.
There are two primary hypotheses being tested in this study. The first hypothesis involves the safety of the device and its image-guided delivery to the study participant. It is hypothesized that Réjuve can be safely applied to degenerated intervertebral discs as evidenced by a clinically acceptable prevalence of Serious Adverse Events reported at 1 month post-procedure. The second primary hypothesis involves the clinical effectiveness of the device. It is hypothesized that the clinical success rate at 3 months after the Réjuve implantation procedure will be greater than or equal to 50%. Clinical success is defined as successful injection delivery of Réjuve to the targeted disc without the occurrence of serious adverse events with a significant reduction of pain and disability using standard assessment metrics. Objective imaging data will also be used to validate reduction of pain post-treatment. A maximum of 50 participants will be enrolled in this clinical study at 2-5 clinical centers. Safety and clinical effectiveness assessments will be carried out through 12 months post-implantation procedure.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 91022 0
Dr Geoffrey Rosenberg
Address 91022 0
Hurstville Private Hospital,
37 Gloucester Road, Hurstville NSW 2220
Country 91022 0
Phone 91022 0
+61 295886399
Fax 91022 0
Email 91022 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 91023 0
Dr Matt Brown
Address 91023 0
Intralink-Spine, Inc.
1501 Bull Lea Rd. Suite 103 Lexington, KY 40511
Country 91023 0
United States of America
Phone 91023 0
+1 859 333 4972
Fax 91023 0
Email 91023 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 91024 0
Dr Matt Brown
Address 91024 0
Intralink-Spine, Inc.
1501 Bull Lea Rd. Suite 103 Lexington, KY 40511
Country 91024 0
United States of America
Phone 91024 0
+1 859 333 4972
Fax 91024 0
Email 91024 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
What supporting documents are/will be available?
No other documents available
Summary results
No Results