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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
GoodForm: An intervention to enhance body image and prevent doping and supplement use in adolescent boys
Scientific title
Goodform: A cluster randomised-controlled trial of an educational program to enhance body esteem, reduce attitudes toward doping in sport, and reduce intentions to use supplements and steroids for boys aged 14-15.
Secondary ID [1] 296979 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Body image 310943 0
Appearance and Performance Enhancing Substance use 310944 0
Condition category
Condition code
Public Health 309608 309608 0 0
Health promotion/education
Mental Health 309609 309609 0 0
Eating disorders
Mental Health 309610 309610 0 0
Other mental health disorders

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Goodform is a 1 hr x four weekly sessions educational program for boys aged 14-15 aimed at improving body image, reducing positive attitudes towards doping in sport, and reducing intentions to use appearance and performance enhancing substances (APES). The program is based on two highly successful existing programs; ATLAS (Goldberg et al., 1996) and The Body Project (Stice et al., 2000), and uses a dissonance-based approach and a social norms approach to achieve outcomes.

The intervention will be delivered by Health and Physical Education (HPE) teachers of boys in year 9, during weekly face to face HPE classes at participants' schools. All teachers will receive a facilitator workbook (specifically designed for this program) with structured activities and explanations for how to deliver the program. Attendance of participants will be monitored using attendance sheets each lesson. Adherence to session content will be monitored using a self-report checklist completed by the teacher following each lesson.

The intervention will take place over the course of four HPE classes. Each lesson will cover a set of structured activities. Session 1 introduces cultural ideals around appearance, and helps boys learn to challenge these ideals. Session 2 introduces supplements and steroids, and helps boys learn about the social, financial, and health risks of these substances. Session 3 is structured around critiquing the use of APES and developing strategies to argue against using them. Session 4 takes an advocacy-based approach, with boys presenting a campaign against one of four types of APES, and identifying ways they can advocate against APES in their everyday lives.

Sessions 2-4 take a Jigsaw approach to learning. The classroom will be split up into four groups, with each group learning about a different APES in each activity, so that eventually all boys have learned about each substance.

Facilitator workbook - teachers all receive a facilitator workbook (designed specifically for this study) that explains the theoretical basis and evidence for the program's activities, and how to facilitate all activities. The workbook can be accessed by emailing the researchers.

Student workbook - students receive a student workbook (designed specifically for this study), in which the majority of activities are completed. The workbook contains 10 worksheets, completed throughout the four intervention sessions. The workbook can be accessed by emailing the researchers.

Digital cultural ideal tool - Found at - this tool introduces boys to the cultural ideal in session 1.

Videos - Five videos have been developed for Goodform. Four focus on the risks of using APES, and are used for boys to learn about these substances. Links are below:
One was developed to highlight the social and emotional risks of using APES, and is accompanied by in-class discussion around help-seeking for body image and APES use. Link here:
Intervention code [1] 313254 0
Intervention code [2] 313255 0
Intervention code [3] 313256 0
Comparator / control treatment
Participants in the control group will receive the intervention after completing the follow-up questionnaire at 2 months.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 318569 0
Intentions to use APES - measured by Intentions to Use Steroids (McKinnon et al., 2001).
- self-report questionnaire.

Timepoint [1] 318569 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline).
Primary outcome [2] 318570 0
Attitudes towards APES - measured by Outcome Expectations for Steroid Use (Parent & Moradi, 2011) self-report questionnaire.
Timepoint [2] 318570 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline)
Primary outcome [3] 318571 0
Body esteem/body image, measured by:
- Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire 4-R (Schaefer, Harriger, Heinberg, Soderberg, & Kevin Thompson, 2017) - self report questionnaire.

Timepoint [3] 318571 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline).
Secondary outcome [1] 365399 0
Body talk - measured by Male Body Talk Scale (Sladek, Engeln, & Miller, 2014) - self-report questionnaire.

Timepoint [1] 365399 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline).
Secondary outcome [2] 365400 0
Social norms around using supplements and steroids - measured using adaptation of the Peer Norms Scale, (Ling et al., 2015) - self-report questionnaire.
Timepoint [2] 365400 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline)
Secondary outcome [3] 365401 0
Teacher outcomes - (composite measure) evaluations of the quality, student engagement, and appropriateness of the program. Measured by self-report questionnaire specifically designed for this study..
Timepoint [3] 365401 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline).
Secondary outcome [4] 370352 0
- Male Body Attitudes Scale (Ryan, Morrison, Roddy, & McCutcheon, 2011) - self-report questionnaire.
Timepoint [4] 370352 0
Post-test (i.e., 4 weeks after baseline). Please note - this is actually a primary outcome.

Key inclusion criteria
Schools with year 9 boys and HPE classes are eligible to run the program.

Boys aged 14-15 (year 9) in HPE classes from participating schools are eligible to participate. HPE teachers of these boys are also eligible to participate.
Minimum age
14 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
1:1 Simple randomisation using a randomisation table created by computer software (i.e. computerised sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Cluster RCT.
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 301552 0
Name [1] 301552 0
World Anti-Doping Agency
Address [1] 301552 0
Tour de la Bourse - 800 Place Victoria
Bureau 1700
Quebec H4Z 1b7
Country [1] 301552 0
Primary sponsor type
Dr Zali Yager
Victoria University
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Secondary sponsor category [1] 301253 0
Name [1] 301253 0
Address [1] 301253 0
Country [1] 301253 0
Other collaborator category [1] 280481 0
Name [1] 280481 0
Dr Sian Mclean
Address [1] 280481 0
Victoria University
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Country [1] 280481 0
Other collaborator category [2] 280482 0
Name [2] 280482 0
Dr Joanna Doley
Address [2] 280482 0
Victoria University
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Country [2] 280482 0
Other collaborator category [3] 280483 0
Name [3] 280483 0
Dr Scott Griffiths
Address [3] 280483 0
The University of Melbourne
Grattan Street,
VIC 3010
Country [3] 280483 0
Other collaborator category [4] 280484 0
Name [4] 280484 0
Dr Linn Goldberg
Address [4] 280484 0
Oregon Health and Science University
3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Rd.
Oregon 97239-3098
Country [4] 280484 0
United States of America

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 302285 0
Victoria University Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 302285 0
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Ethics committee country [1] 302285 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 302285 0
Approval date [1] 302285 0
Ethics approval number [1] 302285 0

Brief summary
The overall aim for this project is to conduct a randomised controlled trial to examine the efficacy of GoodForm, an education program that aims to reduce body dissatisfaction, appearance and performance enhancing substance [APES] use, and lenient attitudes towards doping in sport) in 600 boys aged 14-5. This program will run within the Health and Physical Education curriculum.
Boys have typically been overlooked in body image research, and there are no effective intervention programs for boys. There is evidence that body image, the use of supplements, and attitudes towards doping in sport are interrelated and contribute to anabolic steroid use in adolescent boys. The theoretical frameworks underpinning body image and intentions to use supplements are very different for boys and girls. We will focus only on boys in order to confirm approaches that can be used to target these behaviours in a single sex setting to fill this gap in the literature.
In this research, we will ask teachers of grade 9 and 10 boys to implement GoodForm, the 4 session program that we have developed. We will measure body image, use and intentions to use APES, and attitudes towards doping in sport before and after boys receive the program to determine impact.
This is the first trial of an antidoping program that targets the behaviours that might lead to boys using muscle-building supplements in the world.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 89694 0
Dr Zali Yager
Address 89694 0
Victoria University
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Country 89694 0
Phone 89694 0
+61 0403011643
Fax 89694 0
Email 89694 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 89695 0
Dr Zali Yager
Address 89695 0
Victoria University
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Country 89695 0
Phone 89695 0
+61 0403011643
Fax 89695 0
Email 89695 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 89696 0
Dr Zali Yager
Address 89696 0
Victoria University
Ballarat Rd
VIC 3011
Country 89696 0
Phone 89696 0
+61 0403011643
Fax 89696 0
Email 89696 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
Participants are under the age of 18, and to ensure their privacy and the privacy of the schools they attend we will not make our data available to the public.
What supporting documents are/will be available?
Study protocol
Informed consent form
Ethical approval
How or where can supporting documents be obtained?
Type [1] 946 0
Ethical approval
Citation [1] 946 0
Link [1] 946 0
Email [1] 946 0
Other [1] 946 0
Type [2] 947 0
Informed consent form
Citation [2] 947 0
Link [2] 947 0
Email [2] 947 0
Other [2] 947 0
Participant consent form
Type [3] 948 0
Informed consent form
Citation [3] 948 0
Link [3] 948 0
Email [3] 948 0
Other [3] 948 0
Principal consent form
Type [4] 949 0
Informed consent form
Citation [4] 949 0
Link [4] 949 0
Email [4] 949 0
Other [4] 949 0
Parent opt-out consent form
Type [5] 950 0
Informed consent form
Citation [5] 950 0
Link [5] 950 0
Email [5] 950 0
Other [5] 950 0
Teacher consent form
Summary results
No Results