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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Date results information initially provided
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
The MASTER Coaching Program: Creating positive sporting experiences for players through coach education
Scientific title
The MASTER Coaching Program: Creating positive sporting experiences for players through coach education
Secondary ID [1] 294639 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Wellbeing 307486 0
Mental Health 307487 0
Condition category
Condition code
Mental Health 306569 306569 0 0
Other mental health disorders

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Randomized Controlled Trail
* One netball club
* All volunteer coaches (of teams aged 9 years to 16 years) in the club will be invited to participate (n=30)
* Coaches will be randomized to the intervention or wait list control
* Coach Intervention Includes:
- 4 hour coaching workshop delivered by the research team (week 1)
- 8 week coach mentoring (on-line and face-to-face) (weeks 1-8)
- 2 hour coach assessment session / discussion with the research team (week 4)
- 2 (minimum) sessions peer assessed coaching / discussions (conducted during weeks 6-8)
* Control group will receive the coaching program once the 8 week intervention and all follow-up assessments have been completed

Detail on the MASTER program
1. The research team will deliver a 4 hour theory and practical coach development workshop at the start of the MASTER coaching program. This includes a powerpoint lecture, discussion, demonstrations of training activities, individual and group session planning activities.This session will be conducted at the University and will include an educational presentation of the theoretical underpinnings around the development of positive coaching practices, and a practical session providing coaches with training on how to effectively implement positive coaching practices within training sessions.

2. Coaches will train their netball teams over the following 8-weeks using the MASTER Framework and developed coaching practices within their normal training sessions and will be provided with on-going support and mentoring from the research team (on-line and or face-to face). This includes discussion forums and the provision of training activities and ideas (posted by the research team). Coaches are asked to engage in the online discussions (but not mandatory) and will have access to the mentor for face to face help or for advice at any time on request.

3. After 4 weeks, a 2 hour coach assessment session / discussion with be conducted by the research team to provide more training on the MASTER coaching principles (more examples and practical application discussed and practiced) and on evaluation of coaching practices. This will be conducted at the training venue at a time to be confirmed by the club.

4. In the final three weeks of training , coaches will pair up to assess coaching practices during normal weekly training sessions using the MASTER framework, and discussions coaching practices in a reflective manner - a minimum of 2 peer observations will be conducted per coach.

Attendance to all MASTER program sessions will be recorded.

MASTER Framework
M = maximise player activity (coach provides clear, concise and focused coaching instructions and demonstrations; coach engages all players in activities)
A = Activate learning (WHAT (is the game, or skill/s being learned and developed);WHY (players should play the game, or develop the skill/s); WHEN and/or WHERE (the skills being developed are used in the game); HOW (do you perform this well – what is a quality performance?)
S = Strengths based (Coach optimises the challenge within sessions for all players; Coach is positive; Coach promotes ‘attempt is success’ mindset)
T = Thinking players (Coach uses opposed activities (i.e. one or more defender); Coach uses questioning to facilitate learning; Coach promotes creativity)
E = Engage players (Coach has a ‘presence’ (e.g. voice projection, energy, humour); Coach uses varied, challenging and enjoyable activities; Coach utilises a ‘hook’ to enhance motivation)
R = Reflection (Coach facilitates player reflection; Coach uses reflection from previous session to inform current and / or future sessions)

Intervention code [1] 300943 0
Comparator / control treatment
Wait -list control. Coaches will continue with their normal coaching practices during the intervention period. They will receive the intervention once all follow up assessments are completed. Control Coaches will receive the program after 10weeks from baseline assessments
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 305566 0
Coach practices (composite outcome)
Coaches are video recorded and analysed using the 'Coaching for learning analysis system' by a trained research assistant in terms of the percentage of training session time spent in training form or playing form activities, types of feedback provided to players by the coach, type of / time spend intervening in sessions, active learning time of players during sessions.
Timepoint [1] 305566 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [1] 345786 0
Coach competence assessed by a purpose designed questionnaire
Timepoint [1] 345786 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [2] 345787 0
Players Enjoyment assessed 16 item PACES Questionnaire (Physical Activity Children’s Enjoyment Scale) (Motl et al., 2009)
Timepoint [2] 345787 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [3] 345788 0
Player perceived competence assessed by Athlete Competence subscale of the Self-perception Profile for Children – 6 items
Timepoint [3] 345788 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [4] 345789 0
Player wellbeing assessed by the Warwick Well-being scale (14 items)
Timepoint [4] 345789 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [5] 345790 0
Player Motivation assessed by 20 item Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire for youth (Viladrich et al., 2013)(Lonsdale, Hodge, & Rose, 2008)
Timepoint [5] 345790 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [6] 345792 0
Learning and Performance orientation of players assessed by Athlete learning orientation assessment (Papaioannou, A. (1994)
Timepoint [6] 345792 0
8-weeks from baseline assessments
Secondary outcome [7] 345832 0
Coach confidence assessed by a purpose designed questionnaire
Timepoint [7] 345832 0
8 weeks from baseline assessments

Key inclusion criteria
All volunteer coaches (of teams aged 9 years to 16 years) and their players ( aged 9 years to 16 years) in the netball club will be invited to participate
Minimum age
8 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Coaches (and their players) of teams from modified netball (net set go) to cadet level (under 16s) are eligible

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Central randomisation using a computer at the University was performed after baseline assessments
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Coaches where grouped by team level and randomly assigned by an individual not linked to the research project using a simple randomisation procedures (individual pulled names from hat)
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

The people assessing the outcomes
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
All analyses will be conducted using the statistical software package IBM SPSS 21 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL) and alpha levels were set at p < 0.05. Independent samples t-tests will be performed on continuous variables (e.g. age) and chi-square tests performed on dichotomous variables (e.g. sex) for identifying differences between groups at baseline in key demographic and outcome variables. A descriptive analysis was conducted to assess retention, recruitment, adherence and satisfaction among participants. Linear mixed models will be fitted with an unstructured covariance structure to compare intervention and control groups for all outcomes (for the impact of group (intervention or control), time (treated as categorical with levels baseline and immediate post-intervention) and the group-by-time interaction.) Linear mixed models are consistent with the intention-to-treat principle (Mallinckrodt, Watkin, Molenberghs, Carroll, & Lilly, 2004). Cohen’s d effect size will be calculated (d= mean difference in change scores / pooled variance) and interpreted as: .20 = small, .50 = moderate and .80 = large effect.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 22470 0
2300 - Newcastle

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 299255 0
Other Collaborative groups
Name [1] 299255 0
Souths Leagues Club
Address [1] 299255 0
46 Llewellyn St, Merewether NSW 2291
Country [1] 299255 0
Primary sponsor type
University of Newcastle
University Drive Callaghan NSW 2308
Secondary sponsor category [1] 298526 0
Name [1] 298526 0
Address [1] 298526 0
Country [1] 298526 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 300173 0
University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 300173 0
University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308
Ethics committee country [1] 300173 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 300173 0
Approval date [1] 300173 0
Ethics approval number [1] 300173 0

Brief summary
The primary aim of this study is the evaluate the impact of a coach development program for improving coaching practices and player outcomes with a cohort of community level netball coaches (using a randomised controlled trial)

Based on previous findings with football coaches (pilot study), it is anticipated that coaches participating in the program will demonstrate significant improvements in:
1. The coaching environment (with reference to the MASTER framework)
2. The quality of their training sessions (use of playing-form activities within training sessions and learning opportunities)
3. The quality of coach feedback during training sessions

Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 82786 0
Dr Narelle Eather
Address 82786 0
University of Newcastle
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Country 82786 0
Phone 82786 0
Fax 82786 0
Email 82786 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 82787 0
Dr Narelle Eather
Address 82787 0
University of Newcastle
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Country 82787 0
Phone 82787 0
Fax 82787 0
Email 82787 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 82788 0
Dr Narelle Eather
Address 82788 0
University of Newcastle
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Country 82788 0
Phone 82788 0
Fax 82788 0
Email 82788 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
Individual data for coaches will only be provided upon direct request from the indvidual coach - final group results will be provided to participating coaches and the club
What supporting documents are/will be available?
No other documents available
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary