The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been endorsed by the ANZCTR. Before participating in a study, talk to your health care provider and refer to this information for consumers
Trial registered on ANZCTR


Registration number
ACTRN12617001045303
Ethics application status
Not required
Date submitted
6/07/2017
Date registered
18/07/2017
Date last updated
18/07/2017
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Change in Australian adults’ eating habits from 1995 to 2011-13
Scientific title
Are dietary inequalities among Australian adults changing? A nationally representative analysis of dietary change according to socioeconomic position between 1995 and 2011-13
Secondary ID [1] 292374 0
None
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Dietary intake 303935 0
Socioeconomic position 303936 0
Condition category
Condition code
Diet and Nutrition 303289 303289 0 0
Obesity
Diet and Nutrition 303290 303290 0 0
Other diet and nutrition disorders
Public Health 303291 303291 0 0
Epidemiology

Intervention/exposure
Study type
Observational
Patient registry
False
Target follow-up duration
Target follow-up type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Data for these analyses were provided by Australian adults (19-85 years) who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey, and adults who participated in the 2011-13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. The purpose of this study was to examine change in dietary inequalities in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, fruits and vegetables among Australian adults between 1995 and 2011-13. Variables included:

1) Dietary intake: In 1995, dietary data were collected via an in-person three-stage multiple pass 24-hour food recall with a trained dietitian and a self-administered, written dietary questionnaire in which they reported the number of daily serves of fruits and vegetables usually consumed in the past 12 months. In 2011-12, dietary data were collected via a computer-assisted in-person five-stage multiple pass 24-hour food recall with trained interviewers from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and reported the number of daily serves of fruits and vegetables they normally consumed to a trained interviewer.
2) Socioeconomic position: Educational level was categorized as low (less than secondary), medium (secondary/trade/diploma), or high (tertiary). Income was expressed as gross equivalized household income and categorized as low (decile 1-3), medium (decile 4-7), or high (decile 8-10). The Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) was used to estimate area-level disadvantage in quintiles ordered from most (quintile 1) to least disadvantaged (quintile 5).
3) Sociodemographic variables: Age (continuous), smoking status (current, former, never), sex.
Intervention code [1] 298553 0
Not applicable
Comparator / control treatment
No control group
Control group
Uncontrolled

Outcomes
Primary outcome [1] 302672 0
Dietary intake of energy (kJ) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [1] 302672 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake.
Primary outcome [2] 302747 0
Usual daily fruit consumption was assessed using brief dietary questions and dichotomized into >= 2 serves/d
Timepoint [2] 302747 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates; time period for fruit intake was “usual” daily serves
Primary outcome [3] 302748 0
Usual daily vegetable consumption was assessed using brief dietary questions and dichotomized into >= 4 serves/d
Timepoint [3] 302748 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on usual daily serves
Secondary outcome [1] 336722 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of carbohydrate (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [1] 336722 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake.
Secondary outcome [2] 336895 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of protein (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [2] 336895 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake.
Secondary outcome [3] 336896 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of total fat (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [3] 336896 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake.
Secondary outcome [4] 336897 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of total sugars (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [4] 336897 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake
Secondary outcome [5] 336898 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of saturated fat (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [5] 336898 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake
Secondary outcome [6] 336899 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fat (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [6] 336899 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake
Secondary outcome [7] 336900 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [7] 336900 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake
Secondary outcome [8] 336901 0
Primary outcome: Dietary intake of fiber (g/1000kJ) was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
Timepoint [8] 336901 0
One-time cross-sectional estimates based on the previous day's intake.

Eligibility
Key inclusion criteria
These nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys were conducted using stratified multistage area-based sampling procedures of private dwellings in rural and urban locations in all Australian states and territories. Australian adults (19-85 years) were eligible if they completed a 24-hour dietary recall (and did not have zero energy intake), answered questions about fruit and vegetable intake, and provided sociodemographic information. Women were not eligible if they were pregnant or breastfeeding.
Minimum age
19 Years
Maximum age
85 Years
Gender
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Yes
Key exclusion criteria
Women were not eligible if they were pregnant or breastfeeding.

Study design
Purpose
Natural history
Duration
Cross-sectional
Selection
Random sample
Timing
Retrospective
Statistical methods / analysis
Linear regression models examined change in dietary intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total sugars, fat, fat subtypes and fiber according to three categorical measures of socioeconomic position (education level, household income, area-level disadvantage) between 1995 and 2011-13. Logistic regression examined change in the odds of consuming >= 2 serves/d of fruit, or consuming >= 4 serves/d of vegetables between 1995 and 2011-13.

Recruitment
Recruitment status
Completed
Date of first participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last data collection
Anticipated
Actual
Sample size
Target
Accrual to date
Final
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
ACT,NSW,NT,QLD,SA,TAS,WA,VIC

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 296929 0
Government body
Name [1] 296929 0
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Address [1] 296929 0
160 Elgin Street, 9th Floor
Address Locator 4809A
Ottawa ON K1A 0W9
Canada
Country [1] 296929 0
Canada
Funding source category [2] 296988 0
Government body
Name [2] 296988 0
National Health & Medical Research Council
Address [2] 296988 0
GPO Box 1421
Canberra ACT 2601
Country [2] 296988 0
Australia
Primary sponsor type
Individual
Name
Dr Dana Lee Olstad
Address
3E 16, 3280 Hospital Drive NW
University of Calgary
Calgary, AB
T2N 4Z6
Country
Canada
Secondary sponsor category [1] 295934 0
Individual
Name [1] 295934 0
Professor Sarah McNaughton
Address [1] 295934 0
221 Burwood Highway
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
Deakin University
Burwood, VIC 3125
Country [1] 295934 0
Australia

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Not required
Ethics committee name [1] 298134 0
The surveys were conducted under the authority of the Census and Statistics Act of 1905
Ethics committee address [1] 298134 0
Ethics committee country [1] 298134 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 298134 0
Approval date [1] 298134 0
Ethics approval number [1] 298134 0

Summary
Brief summary
This study used data from two nationally representative surveys, the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 2011-13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The purpose of this study was to examine change in dietary intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, fruits and vegetables among Australian adults between 1995 and 2011-13, according to socioeconomic position (educational level, household income, neighbourhood disadvantage).
Trial website
1995 National Nutrition Survey: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs%40.nsf/Lookup/95E87FE64B144FA3CA2568A9001393C0

2011-13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey:
http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4364.0.55.007~2011-12~Main%20Features~About%20the%20National%20Nutrition%20and%20Physical%20Activity%20Survey~731
Trial related presentations / publications
None
Public notes
This study involved secondary analysis of previously collected data and therefore ethics approval was not required.

Contacts
Principal investigator
Name 76110 0
Dr Dana Lee Olstad
Address 76110 0
University of Calgary, 3E16 TRW, 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6
Country 76110 0
Canada
Phone 76110 0
+1 403 210 8673
Fax 76110 0
Email 76110 0
dana.olstad@ucalgary.ca
Contact person for public queries
Name 76111 0
Dr Dana Lee Olstad
Address 76111 0
University of Calgary, 3E16 TRW, 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6
Country 76111 0
Canada
Phone 76111 0
+1 4032108673
Fax 76111 0
Email 76111 0
dana.olstad@ucalgary.ca
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 76112 0
Dr Dana Lee Olstad
Address 76112 0
University of Calgary, 3E16 TRW, 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6
Country 76112 0
Canada
Phone 76112 0
+1 4032108673
Fax 76112 0
Email 76112 0
dana.olstad@ucalgary.ca

No data has been provided for results reporting
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary