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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Effects of Postural education in the musculoskeletal pain in children of basic education
Scientific title
Postural education: the relationship between Postural habits and musculoskeletal pain in children of basic education
Secondary ID [1] 288716 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Musculoskeletal pain 297952 0
postural changes 297953 0
Condition category
Condition code
Musculoskeletal 298113 298113 0 0
Other muscular and skeletal disorders

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Considered the best way in order to maintain a healthy body and pain-free, maintaining perfect posture, along with regular physical activity, increase awareness to design an educational program of preventive approach, designed to be implemented in the environment school. This program, as well as the back-school, developed and implemented by Zachrisson (1981), aims to reduce the number of musculoskeletal complaints, especially in the spine area, presented by school children. It is believed that postural educational habits also play an essential role in the health of children, the Back-school program is responsible for bringing postural education for the school context, with different preventive strategies for children to apply in their daily lives.
This back-school education program recommends the following postural habits - Seated; standing; lying; backpack and transportation; Weight of transport:
- Sitting: Maintenance of standing back against the back of the chair; positioning the region of the closest possible glutes of the chair and your feet flat on the floor. Where the chair did not allow proper support of the feet on the ground, the students were asked to put a support (books, shoe box);
- Standing with the upright head; back straight and feet apart at shoulder width;
- Lying in lateral decubitus cushion in the head with a height equal to distance between the shoulder and neck and pillow between your legs;
- Carry a backpack with a strap on each shoulder, avoid carrying more than 10% by body weight.
- Survey and object transfer: proper way to pick up objects on the floor: perform the activity bending your knees and not the spine; correct way to transfer objects from one place to another, stand in front of the object, hold it with both hands and close to the body, avoiding twisting the trunk.
This program is carried out during physical education classes, with a frequency of 30 minutes 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The sessions with students were always carried out by the principal investigator, PhD in Human Kinetics, and the only teacher the role of observer. Before these sessions with students, the principal investigator instructed the teachers to the same rules to be passed to students, these sessions began a week before the investigation period and lasted until the end of it. These sessions were always conducted by the principal investigator and were conducted only for teachers in lectures with a frequency of 1 time 1 time per week for 5 weeks, giving indications of the positions that should guide their students during the class period.
These attitudes were reinforced with meetings held by the principal investigator, and teachers role of observing the posture of his students and guides them when they are inadequate, indicating the ideas postures provided in study sessions.
Intervention code [1] 294153 0
Comparator / control treatment
Maintaning the same postural habits and aanswer the questionaire at baseline and after 1 month.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 297678 0
Analysis a musculoskeletal pain assessment in school age children using questionnaire according to Body Discomfort Scale (Corlett and Bishop, 1976) in order to verify and categorize the pain felt (where 0 corresponded to no pain and 5 to the full amount of pain felt by the subject), and its duration (acute pain, subacute or chronic pain).
Timepoint [1] 297678 0
At baseline and after 1 month
Primary outcome [2] 299609 0
Analysis an initial postural behavior assessment in school age children using questionnaire according to Body Discomfort Scale (Corlett and Bishop, 1976) and postural habits and changes during the school year.
Timepoint [2] 299609 0
At baseline and after 1 month
Secondary outcome [1] 321801 0
Analyse whether ergonomics postural recommended were implemented.
Timepoint [1] 321801 0
Twice a weeks during four weeks after ergonomics postural recommended, there was a personal or telephone contact with teachers and parents
Secondary outcome [2] 321802 0
Correlation between musculoskeletal pain and postural behaviour when ergonomics postural recommended was implemented using questionnaire according to Body Discomfort Scale (Corlett and Bishop, 1976).
Timepoint [2] 321802 0
One month after postural recommendations are given

Key inclusion criteria
- Young and teenager,
- Belonging to the2nd Basic Education Cycle (5th grade) and the 3rd Basic Education Cycle (9th grade);
- Belonging to the Basic School 2/3 D. Dinis
Minimum age
10 Years
Maximum age
15 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
No exclusion criteria
All students that the parents consented, were analyzed

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Not applicable
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Not applicable
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
For this purpose, all students in the 5th grade and 9th grade were invited to participate in this study.
In a population of 259 students (121 of 5th grade and 138 of the 9th grade) participated 204 students (78.8%) and 102 students of the 5th grade (84.3%) and 102 students in the 9th grade (73.9% ).
SPSS, 20.0 version was used in order to treat all the statistical data, for normality verification Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied before a descriptive analysis. This last, was calculated based upon standard methods. In order to analyze any characteristically difference between both groups, the t test was applied. In order to find variable relations Pearson’s correlate coefficient (r) was applied. The statistically level of significance was establish in p = 0.05.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 7978 0
State/province [1] 7978 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 293880 0
Name [1] 293880 0
Research Centre for Human Movement Sciences (CIMH) of the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
Address [1] 293880 0
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria-Campus 2 - Morro do Lena – Alto do Vieiro - Apartado 4163 - 2411-901 Leiria
Country [1] 293880 0
Primary sponsor type
Research Centre for Human Movement Sciences (CIMH) of the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria-Campus 2 - Morro do Lena – Alto do Vieiro - Apartado 4163 - 2411-901 Leiria
Secondary sponsor category [1] 292708 0
Name [1] 292708 0
Address [1] 292708 0
Country [1] 292708 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 295296 0
Research Centre for Human Movement Sciences (CIMH)
Ethics committee address [1] 295296 0
Rua General Norton de Matos, Apartado 4133, 2411-901 Leiria
Ethics committee country [1] 295296 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 295296 0
Approval date [1] 295296 0
Ethics approval number [1] 295296 0
CIMH Approval Number: 3/2014

Brief summary
The study of the relationship between the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and postural changes in the children and teenagers are of great relevance, because it allows the establishment of criteria in health care in individuals in the process of growth and maturation. The aim of this study is: i) Verify the influence of the postural habits and postural behavior during school period and; ii) Check if an ergonomics recommendation (with Back School postural recommendation program) can mean positive changes in the perception of back pain, according to ecological and environmental approach. The Back School program has assumed an important role in changing postural habits. We can consider the inclusion of postural education in the school environment with students from the 2nd and 3rd cycles of basic education, i.e. preventive work , clarification and guidance can be developed for children and adolescents acquire attitudes of self-care with the spine and learn to prevent possible postural problems. The individuals were equally separated in two groups: Experimental Group and Control Group. A sample of 204 students from the 2nd and 3rd cycles of basic education (children and teenagers) with age between 10 and 15 years old. Scale of bodily discomfort was adopted to check the references of the level of pain. The results indicated that there is a direct and significant (p <0.01), correlation between the time of onset of pain and perceived that same (2.59+/- 0.88 in chronic pain compared to 2:09+/- 1:09 in acute pain) intensity. Regarding postural habits, 88.5% of participants had poor posture, and these significantly (p <0.01), higher perception of pain (2.44+/- 0.98) compared with participants with adequate postures (2,06+/- 0.83). The relations obtained seem to prove the crucial role that postural education can have in therapeutic/reeducation terms, and especially in terms of prevention.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 64238 0
Prof Gustavo Coutinho Desouzart
Address 64238 0
Polythecnic Institute of Leiria - Campus 2 - Morro do Lena – Alto do Vieiro - Apartado 4163. 2411-901 Leiria – Portugal
Country 64238 0
Phone 64238 0
Fax 64238 0
Email 64238 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 64239 0
Prof Gustavo Coutinho Desouzart
Address 64239 0
Polythecnic Institute of Leiria - Campus 2 - Morro do Lena – Alto do Vieiro - Apartado 4163. 2411-901 Leiria – Portugal
Country 64239 0
Phone 64239 0
Fax 64239 0
Email 64239 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 64240 0
Prof Gustavo Coutinho Desouzart
Address 64240 0
Polythecnic Institute of Leiria - Campus 2 - Morro do Lena – Alto do Vieiro - Apartado 4163. 2411-901 Leiria – Portugal
Country 64240 0
Phone 64240 0
Fax 64240 0
Email 64240 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary