The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been endorsed by the ANZCTR. Before participating in a study, talk to your health care provider and refer to this information for consumers
Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Effect of oral sensory exposure on pork sensory specific satiety: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Scientific title
Effect of oral sensory exposure on pork sensory specific satiety: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study study in healthy human subjects
Secondary ID [1] 287628 0
Nil Known
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
neural activation in healthy adults 296443 0
subjective appetite in healthy subjects 296444 0
Condition category
Condition code
Neurological 296708 296708 0 0
Studies of the normal brain and nervous system

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
This study will employ a randomized, two way cross-over design. All participants act as their own control. Participants will be tested on two separate days (one week washout time in between) with one of two interventions:
(1) A placebo chewing gum + standardized breakfast
(2) A pork flavored chewing gum + standardized breakfast

The flavour added to the pork flavored chewing gum related to a mixture of 2 pork ham flavours (5% Acorde JAMON1, 10% Acorde JAMON 2; Lucta SA, Montornes del Valles, Spain) , 5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) (Ajinomoto Inc., Japan), 0.05% inosine monophosphate (IMP, 4666803) and 0.05% guanosine monophosphate (GMP, 2421617) (Givaudan Australian Pty Ltd). This mimic real pork flavor (aroma and taste).

The breakfast consisted of 100g pork (cooked ham), 125g boiled rice, 50g fresh apple and 200ml of pure water. The calculated nutritional content of the meal was 1309KJ, 21.8g of crude protein, 7.5g of total fat and 40.3g of carbohydrate. Pork was the predominant protein source.

On the testing days, participants will arrive at the lab after an overnight fast, Participants will receive a chewing gum (either placebo or pork-flavored) and will be asked to chew for 7 min (chew rate between 25-30 times per min using a metronome) before they eat the breakfast. Participants will complete two brain scanning sessions: one baseline at arrival (pre-intervention) and the other one at 60 minutes after breakfast (post-intervention) with four categories of food cues (cake, meat, fruit and salad) shown as images alone or as combined image and congruent odors. Subjective ratings of food cues were measured during scanning as a measure of sensory specific satiety. Subjective specific appetite for sweet, savoury, fatty and salty foods were evaluated outside the scanner to test the transference of pork sensory specific satiety.
Intervention code [1] 293030 0
Treatment: Other
Comparator / control treatment
This is a within subjects design, participants are their own controls (receiving placebo chewing gum and pork-flavored chewing gum)

the placebo chewing gum is a 3-gram commercial gum base;
the pork-flavored gum is a 3-gram chewing gum made based on the placebo gum, with addition of the flavor compounds listed above.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 296320 0
fMRI data will be collected to investigate whether the brain reward regions activations to food cues before and after the chewing gum + breakfast treatments.
Timepoint [1] 296320 0
At arrival (before the treatment) and at 60 minutes after the treatment
Primary outcome [2] 296321 0
Ratings on a 13-points scales for the pleasantness of each category of food cues during scanning as a measurment of subjective sensory specific satiety
Timepoint [2] 296321 0
At arrival (before treatment) and at 60 min after the treatment
Secondary outcome [1] 318146 0
A composite measurement for sensory specific appetite for four foods with four different flavor (sweet, savory, fatty and salty flavor foods) using visual analogue scale.
Timepoint [1] 318146 0
Arrival; after the pre-treatment fMRI scan; 0 min after the treatment; 30 min after the treatment; 60 min after the treatment; and after the post-treatment fMRI scan

Key inclusion criteria
BMI (18.5-25.9), Right-handed, non-smokers, medication free, non-pregnant, no food allergies; non-vegetarianism; Safety for MRI scanning; Not cognitive dietary restraint (factor 1 score < 13 measured by the three factor eating questionnaire)
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
35 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Psychiatric or neurological illness; gustatory, gastrointestinal, olfactory or eating dysfunction; a body mass index (BMI) over 25.9 or below 18.5; drug or medication use; smoking; pregnancy; food allergies; vegetarianism; non breakfast eaters or a change in weight > 5kg in the past 2 months. Not safety for MRI scanning; cognitive dietary restraint

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 292191 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 292191 0
Australian Pork CRC
Address [1] 292191 0
JS Davies Building, University of Adelaide – Roseworthy Campus, Mudla Wirra Road, Kangaroo Flat, S.A. 5371
Country [1] 292191 0
Primary sponsor type
The University of Queensland
The University of Queensland, St Lucia,4072, Brisbane, QLD
Secondary sponsor category [1] 290869 0
Name [1] 290869 0
Center for Nutrition and Food Sciences
Address [1] 290869 0
Hartley Teakle Building (#83), the University of Queensland, St Lucia,4072, Brisbane, QLD
Country [1] 290869 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 293664 0
The University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 293664 0
Human Ethics, Research Management Office, UQ Research and Innovation, Cumbrae-Stewart Building (#72), BRISBANE QLD 4072
Ethics committee country [1] 293664 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 293664 0
Approval date [1] 293664 0
Ethics approval number [1] 293664 0

Brief summary
The aim of this project is to study whether the flavor of pork meat, together with a standard meal, could exert higher satiating effect. The satiety will not only be studied using subjective sensation of appetite, but also by looking at the brain response to food-related visual cues and food-related odour cues using Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique. The purpose of this project is to improve the understanding of the correlation between sensory specific satiety and brain activity.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Activation of Human Orbitofrontal Cortex to Visual Only or Visual and Olfactory Food Stimuli Reflects Pork Sensory-Specific Satiety. In: Abstracts of the Australasian Association for ChemoSensory Science (AACSS). 15th Scientific Meeting of the Australasian-Association-for-ChemoSensory-Science (AACSS), Brisbane, QLD Australia, (364-364). 03-05 December 2014. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjv008
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 60874 0
Address 60874 0
C504 Hartley Teakle Building (83#), Center for Nutrition and Food Sciences, the University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, QLD
Country 60874 0
Phone 60874 0
+61 426 882 330
Fax 60874 0
Email 60874 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 60875 0
Dr Eugeni Roura
Address 60875 0
S435 Hartley Teakle Building (83#), Center for Nutrition and Food Sciences, the University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, QLD
Country 60875 0
Phone 60875 0
+61 (0)7 3365 2526
Fax 60875 0
Email 60875 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 60876 0
Address 60876 0
C504 Hartley Teakle Building (83#), Center for Nutrition and Food Sciences, the University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, QLD
Country 60876 0
Phone 60876 0
+61 426 882 330
Fax 60876 0
Email 60876 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary