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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Development and validation of basketball and netball specific injury prevention tools
Scientific title
Can a sport specific neuromuscular warm up improve landing biomechanics in healthy netball and basketball players?
Secondary ID [1] 287370 0
Nil known
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Knee Injury 296047 0
Lower extremity injuries 296144 0
Condition category
Condition code
Musculoskeletal 296318 296318 0 0
Other muscular and skeletal disorders
Injuries and Accidents 296416 296416 0 0
Other injuries and accidents
Physical Medicine / Rehabilitation 296417 296417 0 0
Other physical medicine / rehabilitation

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Arm 1 – athletes under take screening tests looking at balance (Standing Excursion Balance test, single leg squat) and Landing technique (Drop Vertical Jump, hopping, box drop landing). The control group receive no intervention or feedback, and athletes continue with their normal training.

Arm 2 – athletes under take the same screening tests, and are randomly allocated to the intervention group. The intervention involves a neuromuscular warm up, to be conducted at the start of team trainings and games, instead of the usual team warm up. The intervention exercises will take 15 minutes, equivalent to time typically allocated to team warm ups. Athletes will be re assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months

Jogging, side steps, dynamic stretching (3 mins)
Strength/activation exercises (e.g lunges, nordic lowers, single leg stability) - 4 mins
Balance/Proprioception - double and single leg landing practice, in all directions. Introduce light perturbations and landing with arms overhead. (3 minutes)
Functional Agility: cutting movements, quick acceleration and deceleration, including unanticipated change in direction (3 mins)

Sport Specific Movement patterns: 1 on 1 offence vs defence cutting, sidesteps. 2 minutes
Intervention code [1] 292713 0
Early detection / Screening
Intervention code [2] 292714 0
Comparator / control treatment
Athletes will continue with their usual warm up
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 295971 0
Landing Error Scoring System rating based on video analysis of landing technique
Timepoint [1] 295971 0
Time point: at initial recruitment, 6 weeks, and 6 months
Primary outcome [2] 295972 0
Lower extremity biomechanics using DorsaVi, assessed during landing task
Timepoint [2] 295972 0
at initial recruitment, 6 weeks and 6 months
Secondary outcome [1] 317081 0
Standing Excursion Balance Test
Timepoint [1] 317081 0
at initial recruitment, 6 weeks and 6 months

Key inclusion criteria
Basketball or Netball players
Minimum age
14 Years
Maximum age
30 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
recent ( < 3 months) significant lower limb injury or surgery , or pain that may preclude physical activity.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Randomisation will be in the form of cluster randomisation. Teams will be recruited to participate in the study. Athletes in each participating team will be provided with a patient information statement, and consent form. Once players from the team have returned their consent forms, the team will be allocated randomly to control or intervention group via contacting the holder of the allocation schedule who is off site at a central administration site (allocation concealment). Teams in the control group will not be informed about the content of the intervention exercises to prevent contamination.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Cluster randomisation of teams will occur via simple randomisation, using a computerised sequence generation.
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

The people assessing the outcomes
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
Linear mixed models will be used to assess the effect of the intervention on athletic task biomechanics. Chi square tests will test for differences in injury rates between the two groups. Multivariable regression models will be used to indentify predictors of injury

The primary outcome measure will be the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), which has been shown to be a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool for the biomechanics of jump landing (d. Padua, Marshall, & Boling, 2009).
A recent study by Padua et al (2015) found that injured participants scored 1.81 points higher on the LESS than uninjured subjects, which knee experts would consider to be a large, and clinically meaningful difference. Standard deviations of the LESS assessment range between 1.68 and 2 ((d. Padua et al., 2009; D. A. Padua et al., 2015; Smith, Johnson, & Shultz, 2012)

An apriori power analysis was conducted using a mean difference of 1.8, with a conservative SD of 2.0. A T- test with two tails was performed, determining a total sample size for each group to be 19.

Similar studies following teams in season have found subject drop outs of up to 25%. To account for subject drop out, we would plan on recruiting 30 athletes for each group.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 10221 0
2006 - The University Of Sydney

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 291929 0
Self funded/Unfunded
Name [1] 291929 0
Address [1] 291929 0
Country [1] 291929 0
Primary sponsor type
University of Sydney
University of Sydney
NSW 2006
Secondary sponsor category [1] 290598 0
Name [1] 290598 0
Address [1] 290598 0
Country [1] 290598 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 293432 0
Human Research Ethics Committee University of Sydney
Ethics committee address [1] 293432 0
Research Integrity
Level 6, Jane Foss Russell
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006
Ethics committee country [1] 293432 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 293432 0
Approval date [1] 293432 0
Ethics approval number [1] 293432 0

Brief summary
It has been suggested that faulty biomechanics contribute to the high rate of lower extremity injuries in basketball and netball. This project will involve a cluster randomized controlled trial that will investigate if a sports-specific injury prevention program results in changes in landing biomechanics among netball and basketball players.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 59910 0
Mr David Hillard
Address 59910 0
School of Physiotherapy,
University of Sydney
75 East St,
NSW 2141
Country 59910 0
Phone 59910 0
+61 401 752 850
Fax 59910 0
Email 59910 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 59911 0
Mr David Hillard
Address 59911 0
School of Physiotherapy,
University of Sydney
75 East St,
NSW 2141
Country 59911 0
Phone 59911 0
+61 401 752 850
Fax 59911 0
Email 59911 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 59912 0
Mr David Hillard
Address 59912 0
School of Physiotherapy,
University of Sydney
75 East St,
NSW 2141
Country 59912 0
Phone 59912 0
+61 401 752 850
Fax 59912 0
Email 59912 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary