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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
The effects of fructose intake on acute serum uric acid level and blood pressure
Scientific title
The effect of consuming foods and beverages containing fructose by healthy young adults on serum uric acid and blood pressure
Secondary ID [1] 286183 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Hyperuricaemia 294211 0
Blood pressure 294212 0
Condition category
Condition code
Diet and Nutrition 294529 294529 0 0
Other diet and nutrition disorders
Cardiovascular 294617 294617 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
This is an acute dietary intervention study in which healthy adults will be randomised to one of four groups. Group 1 - apples; Group 2 - apple juice; Group 3 a commercially available sucrose sweetened beverage (fizzy drink); Group 4 - a fructose drink and a glucose drink. Two serves of food will act as a crossover. For Groups 1 to 3, participants will consume either one serve (one apple; one glass of apple juice; or one can of fizzy drink) or two serves of the respective foods. One serve (one apple, a 250ml glass of juice or a 355ml can of fizzy) are commonly consumed items although a double serve (two apples, two glasses of juice or a 600ml bottle of fizzy) are within the realms of normal consumption for some people. The fructose content of one serve of each of those test foods will be within the range 15-20 g. The order of consumption will be randomised with a two week washout between tests. For Group 4, participants will consume a fructose beverage on one occasion and a glucose beverage on the other, again in randomised order. These are the control foods. The amount of fructose and glucose will be matched to that of the double food serve. At baseline and for one hour after consumption blood samples will be taken for uric acid analysis and blood pressure will be taken at baseline and 70 minutes.
Intervention code [1] 291195 0
Intervention code [2] 291259 0
Comparator / control treatment
A fructose solution will be made using pure fructose and carbonated water. It will be matched for fructose content to the double serve of test foods. This will control for effects of other nutrients in the test foods. A second control will be a glucose beverage. Glucose does not have uric acid raising potential and this will be used to control for time effects on uric acid during the experiment. Glucose also has a minimal effect on blood pressure and heart rate, so this will be used to control for time effects when assessing the fructose test foods.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 294306 0
Serum uric acid concentrations using capillary blood obtained by a finger prick
Timepoint [1] 294306 0
Baseline, and 30 and 60 minutes following ingestion of the test food
Primary outcome [2] 294307 0
Blood pressure will be assessed as the mean of three determinations using an automatic sphygmomanometer
Timepoint [2] 294307 0
Baseline and seventy minutes following ingestion of the test food
Secondary outcome [1] 313000 0
Heart rate will be assessed as the mean of three determinations using an automatic sphygmomanometer. The Omron sphygmomanometer displays pulse rate (beats per minute) after each blood pressure determination.
Timepoint [1] 313000 0
Baseline and 70 minutes following ingestion of the test food
Secondary outcome [2] 313001 0
Blood glucose will be assessed with a Hemocue blood glucose meter using capiliary blood obtained by finger-prick
Timepoint [2] 313001 0
Baseline and 30 and 60 minutes following ingestion of the test food
Secondary outcome [3] 313002 0
Satiety will be assessed using 100mm visual analogue scales
Timepoint [3] 313002 0
Baseline and 30 and 60 minutes following ingestion of the test food

Key inclusion criteria
University students
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
65 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
People diagnosed with chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diseases of the digestive system; and women who are pregnant.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Participants will be allocated to a test food and to an order of
consumption (single or double the amount of food) using a computer generated random number list. The person who will determine if a subject is eligible for inclusion in the trial will be unaware, when this decision is made, to which group the subject will be allocated. Allocation will be concealed from the research personnel conducting the study up to the time of the start of the intervention.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Block randomisation to balance males and females into each of the four intervention groups. Simple randomization for order of treatment. All randomization will be done using a randomisation table created by computer software
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
There will be four treatment groups in parallel (apples; fruit juice; sugary beverage; control). Within each of the four intervention groups, each participant will consume in a crossover design (with a two week washout), either a single serve or a double serve of the foods.
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
A total of 20 participants per group would be required to detect a difference of 50 micromol/L in plasma uric acid with 80% power and a two-sided significance level of 0.05. This was determined using a mean of 340 micromol/L and a standard deviation of 80 micromol/L. A two-sided paired t-test will be used to compare baseline and final uric acid levels for each test. Twenty participants per group will be ample to detect a change in blood pressure of 3 mmHg over the course of the experiment. ANCOVA will be used to test for differences in the primary outcomes among the groups.

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 6663 0
New Zealand
State/province [1] 6663 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 290753 0
Name [1] 290753 0
University of Otago
Address [1] 290753 0
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054
Country [1] 290753 0
New Zealand
Primary sponsor type
University of Otago
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054
New Zealand
Secondary sponsor category [1] 289439 0
Name [1] 289439 0
Address [1] 289439 0
Country [1] 289439 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 292385 0
University of Otago Human Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 292385 0
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054
Ethics committee country [1] 292385 0
New Zealand
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 292385 0
Approval date [1] 292385 0
Ethics approval number [1] 292385 0

Brief summary
Gout, hyperuricemia and hypertension are prevalent in New Zealand. In animal experiments and human studies involving large intakes of free fructose, fructose has been linked to increasing serum uric acid concentrations and elevated blood pressure. More studies are required to test whether uric acid and blood pressure are raised acutely when more realistic fructose intakes contained in real foods are consumed. The objective of this study is to test whether consuming fructose from commonly consumed foods in realistic serving sizes has an affect on acute post-ingestion serum uric acid concentration and blood pressure.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 54954 0
Dr Bernard Venn
Address 54954 0
University of Otago
Department of Human Nutrition
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054
Country 54954 0
New Zealand
Phone 54954 0
Fax 54954 0
Email 54954 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 54955 0
Dr Bernard Venn
Address 54955 0
University of Otago
Department of Human Nutrition
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054
Country 54955 0
New Zealand
Phone 54955 0
Fax 54955 0
Email 54955 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 54956 0
Dr Bernard Venn
Address 54956 0
University of Otago
Department of Human Nutrition
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054
Country 54956 0
New Zealand
Phone 54956 0
Fax 54956 0
Email 54956 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
No Results