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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
A Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Dichloroacetate in Plateau Phase Myeloma - DiCAM
Scientific title
In 'plateau phase' myeloma patients does 3 months of oral dichloroacetate lead to a reduction in residual disease burden as assessed by serum paraprotein or light chain levels.
Secondary ID [1] 286081 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Plasma Cell Myeloma (aka Multiple Myeloma) 294080 0
Condition category
Condition code
Cancer 294386 294386 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Oral Dichloroacetate as the sodium salt, administered by mouth for 3 months.
Dose will be 25mg/kg twice daily loading for 3 days then reduce to 6.25mg/kg twice daily.

A single boost of 25mg/kg on day 8 will occur followed by return to maintenance dose of 6.25mg/kg twice daily.

Adherence monitoring will be by capsule count with dispensing of new medication as well as pharmacokinetic monitoring of plasma levels.
Intervention code [1] 291118 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 294232 0
Overall response rate (ORR) defined as the proportion of patients achieving at least a 25% (and 1g/L) reduction in serum paraprotein or 25% reduction in difference between involved serum light chains (at least 100mg/mL)
Timepoint [1] 294232 0
After 3 months of DCA administration
Secondary outcome [1] 312852 0
Genotyping of Glutathione S Transferase Zeta (GSTZ1) and correlation of GSTZ1 genotype with DCA pharmacokinetics in vivo

DNA will be isolated from blood samples drawn for plasma DCA levels, and GSTZ1 genotypes determined by PCR.
Plasma DCA levels will be assessed by mass spectrometry on plasma samples.
Timepoint [1] 312852 0
Multiple timepoints throughout treatment (Day 1 at 1,2,3,4,5,6 hours post dose, Day 2 trough, Day 8 trough and at 1,2,3,4,5,6 hours, Day 28 trough, Day 56 trough and Day 84 trough)

Key inclusion criteria
*Diagnosis of Plasma Cell Myeloma (at any time) according to WHO criteria
*Aged 18 years or older
*Eastern Co- operative Oncology Group Performance status less than 2
*Life expectancy due to myeloma or co- morbid conditions in the opinion of the treating physician likely to exceed 3 months


* has measurable residual disease i.e.
**Quantifiable serum paraprotein on electrophoresis at least 1g/L OR
**Elevated free kappa (>21mg/L) or lambda light chains (>30mg/L) AND a minimum difference between level of involved/uninvolved light chain of 150mg/L AND an abnormal serum free light chain ratio (normal range = 0.26-1.26)
* is in a ‘Plateau- Phase’ i.e.
** A period of neither progression nor response at least 28 days following the last change in myeloma treatment
**Progression defined as per IWMG

*an increase in the paraprotein by >= 25% and at least 5g/L

*In light chain only patients, >25% increase in difference between involved and uninvolved light chain level, with an absolute increase of >0.1g/L

*development of new lytic lesions

*development of new end organ damage (Renal disease, marrow failure, lytic lesions, hypercalcaemia) attributable to myeloma or new plasmacytomas

**Response defined as reduction in the paraprotein by at least 25% OR in the case of light chain only myeloma, at least 25% decrease in the difference between the involved and uninvolved light chain and an absolute reduction of at least 100mg/L.

* Blood samples to assess for plateau phase must be at least 28 days apart
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
*Unable to give informed consent
*Non-secretory myeloma
*Receipt of any active anti-myeloma therapy (excluding bisphosphonates) in the 16 weeks prior to enrolment, with the exception that patients on stable doses of long- term maintenance therapy will be allowed (no dose alteration in the prior 8 weeks).

*Pregnant or breastfeeding
*Unwilling to avoid pregnancy and use birth control (if applicable) during the study and for 4 weeks after completion of the study
*Unable to swallow capsules
*Major surgery within the last 28 days
*Enrolled in another trial or have discontinued from another clinical trial within the last 14 days
*Any serious pre-existing medical condition that, in the opinion of the study doctor would keep you from being on this trial
*Any peripheral motor or sensory neuropathy, neuralgia or paraesthesia (of grade 3 or worse)
*Any pre-existing severe ataxia or tremor (grade 3 or worse)
*Known history of liver disease (cirrhosis established by imaging studies or biopsy) or abnormal liver function tests within the last 14 days (AST or ALT > 3 x ULN or ALP >2.5 x ULN or total bilirubin > 1.5 x ULN)
*Any more than moderate renal impairment i.e. Calculated Creatinine Clearance by Cockcroft Gault formula of greater than or equal to 30 mL/min
*Inadequate cardiac function defined as:
**Electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of
***Acute ischemia
***Active clinically significant conduction system abnormalities
***>Grade 2 (>480 ms) (QTc) prolongation
***Uncontrolled angina or severe ventricular arrhythmias
***Myocardial infarction within the last 6 months
***Class 3 or higher New York Heart Association Congestive Heart Failure

**Haemoglobin < 80g/L
**Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) less than 1.0 x 10^9/L
**Platelet Count less than 50 x 10^9/L
*Any active fungal, bacterial and/or known active viral infection including HIV or hepatitis (A, B, or C).
*A second malignancy which in the opinion of the investigator may affect the interpretation of results

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Referred patients will be consented and screened for suitability. All patients will be allocated in an unblinded fashion to study drug.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Single group
Other design features
Simons minimax 2 stage design
- initial recruitment & evaluation of 15 patients for treatment response.

Recruitment of a further 10 participants only if first cohort shows evidence of efficacy.
Phase 2
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
A Simon’s Mini-max 2-stage design will be used to conduct the trial. This trial design will optimise safety by exposing fewer patients to a potentially inactive treatment.
With this study design a total of 25 patients are needed to achieve 80% power with an alpha of 0.05.
The null hypothesis is that <10% of patients respond to the DCA i.e. H0: patients achieving ORR < 10% of study participants.
The alternative hypothesis is that at least 30% of patients will have a response to the DCA: Ha: patients achieving ORR = 30% of study participants
The decision to terminate the study and reject the drug after the first stage of the study will be based on the number of responses observed. If at least 1 of the first 15 evaluable patients in stage 1 achieve a response as defined above, the study will continue to stage 2 until a total of 25 evaluable patients have been recruited.
If in the final analysis more than 5 patients have an ORR then the null hypothesis will be rejected i.e. confirming evidence of the efficacy of DCA in deepening responses in plateau phase patients.
The primary efficacy analysis of ORR will be performed when the required number of evaluable patients has been enrolled. The study population is defined as all registered patients who have received at least 12 weeks of treatment. A final evaluation of the proportion of patients achieving ORR will be calculated and a corresponding 95% CI reported.
The expected enrolment period is 12 months. To account for potential non-adherence or early dropout, we envisage that up to an additional 5 patients may be enrolled in the first stage and that these additional enrolments may continue, only until such time as 15 patients have successfully completed the 3 month exposure to the study drug. Once the first 15 patients have completed this treatment period, no further enrolment will occur until the initial efficacy analysis is complete.

Simple descriptive statistics will be used to measure efficacy (proportion of patients achieving a response).

Secondary analyses of response according to myeloma characteristics (cytogenetics where available, prior treatment type etc) will also occur

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 3438 0
The Canberra Hospital - Garran
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 9205 0
2605 - Garran

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 290725 0
Government body
Name [1] 290725 0
The Canberra Hospital Private Practice Fund
Address [1] 290725 0
The Canberra Hospital Private Practice Fund Administration
Yamba Dr Garran ACT 2605

Country [1] 290725 0
Primary sponsor type
Department of Haematology - Capital Region Cancer Services- The Canberra Hospital
Capital Region Cancer Services Building
Level 5

Yamba Dr, GARRAN ACT 2602
Secondary sponsor category [1] 289416 0
Name [1] 289416 0
Address [1] 289416 0
Country [1] 289416 0
Other collaborator category [1] 278344 0
Name [1] 278344 0
Dr Anneke Blackburn
Address [1] 278344 0
Cancer Metabolism and Genetics Group
Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics
John Curtin School of Medical Research Building 131, Garran Rd
Australian National University, PO Box 334, Canberra ACT 0200
Country [1] 278344 0
Other collaborator category [2] 278356 0
Name [2] 278356 0
Dr Lucy Coupland
Address [2] 278356 0
Post-Doctoral Researcher
Cancer & Vascular Biology Group,
The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Building 131, Garran Rd,

Country [2] 278356 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 292362 0
ACT Health Human Research Ethics Committe (HREC)
Ethics committee address [1] 292362 0
Level 6, Building 10
Canberra Hospital

Yamba Dr Garran, ACT 2605
Ethics committee country [1] 292362 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 292362 0
Approval date [1] 292362 0
Ethics approval number [1] 292362 0
ETH 7.14.166

Brief summary
This study aims to determine whether 3 months of treatment with oral dichloroacetate can supress multiple myeloma.

Who is it for? You may be eligible to join this study if you are aged 18 years or above and have a diagnosis of Plasma Cell Myeloma which is in a 'Plateau-Phase', i.e. a period of neither progression nor response at least 28 days following the last change in myeloma treatment.

Study details: All participants in this study will be treated with a drug called dichloroacetate. This will be taken orally (by mouth) daily for 3 months A number of blood samples will be taken throughout treatment in order to determine how the body responds to treatment. This information will help us determine how well dichloroacetate is tolerated, and whether it has the ability to suppress multiple myeloma.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes
Attachments [1] 307 307 0 0

Principal investigator
Name 54530 0
Dr Samuel Bennett
Address 54530 0
Haematology Department
Capital Region Cancer Services

Yamba Dr, GARRAN ACT 2602
Country 54530 0
Phone 54530 0
+61 2 6174 8547
Fax 54530 0
Email 54530 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 54531 0
Dr Samuel Bennett
Address 54531 0
Haematology Department
Capital Region Cancer Services

Yamba Dr, GARRAN ACT 2602
Country 54531 0
Phone 54531 0
+61 2 6174 8547
Fax 54531 0
Email 54531 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 54532 0
Dr Anneke Blackburn
Address 54532 0
Cancer Metabolism and Genetics Group
Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics
John Curtin School of Medical Research
Building 131, Garran Rd.
Australian National University
Acton ACT 2601
Country 54532 0
Phone 54532 0
+61 2 6125 4710
Fax 54532 0
+61 2 6125 4712
Email 54532 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
No Results