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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Prevalence of fructose malabsorption in patients with gout.
Scientific title
Prevalence of fructose malabsorption in patients with gout.
Secondary ID [1] 281040 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Gout 287173 0
Intestinal fructose malabsorption

The proposed investigation aims to identify the rates of fructose malabsorption in patients with gout. It is anticipated that this will then lead to further studies of dietary manipulation in patients with and without fructose malabsorption to determine whether dietary fructose restriction results in reduction in serum urate to a greater or lesser extent in each group.
287174 0
Condition category
Condition code
Musculoskeletal 287502 287502 0 0
Other muscular and skeletal disorders
Oral and Gastrointestinal 287503 287503 0 0
Normal oral and gastrointestinal development and function

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
100 patients with gout will be recruited. Patients will be seen on one occasion to undertake a fructose breath test. Patients will be instructed to follow a low-fermentable diet for 24 hours prior to the test. Patients will give a fasting breath test in the morning and then be given a solution of fructose to drink. Repeat breath test will be taken every 15mins for up to 3 hours. The number of additional tests will be determined on case by case basis

Malabsorption of fructose will be defined as breath hydrogen greater than/equal to10ppm above baseline for at least two consecutive 15 minute readings or one reading of greater than 20 ppm above baseline. For those patients who do not produce hydrogen (typically 10-15% of the general population) methane will also be determined and similar cut offs concentrations will be used.

Hydrogen and methane concentrations will be determined using a Quintron microlyser DP. This equipment is a purpose built hydrogen and methane analyser that uses solid state sensors to determine respective gas concentrations. This machine has been used for diagnostic purposes in Christchurch for over three years and is overseen by Scientific Officer Dr Bruce Dobbs. A/Prof Gearry has five years experience in overseeing, interpreting and reporting hydrogen and methane breath tests.
Intervention code [1] 285499 0
Early detection / Screening
Intervention code [2] 285505 0
Comparator / control treatment
100 controls without gout will be recruited. Cases and controls will be matched on age +/- 10years, gender, and ethnicity. Controls will have the same exclusion criteria as cases. Controls will also undergo the breath test
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 287755 0
To determine whether patients with gout have lower rates of fructose malabsorption compared to the general population.
This will be determined using the fructose breath test using a Quintron microlyser DP
Timepoint [1] 287755 0
The breath test will be undertaken once only.
Secondary outcome [1] 327776 0
To determine the effect of fructose malabsorption (assessed by breath test) on serum urate
Timepoint [1] 327776 0
Fructose breath test performed over 180minutes and serum urate measured at time 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 mins

Key inclusion criteria
1. Male or female aged >/=18 years

2. Patients fulfil the ACR preliminary classification criteria for gout (Wallace et al. 1977)

3. Subjects are willing and able to participate in the study and from whom written informed consent has been obtained.
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
90 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
1. Known inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome

2. Receiving diuretic or antibiotic therapy

3. Presence of chronic infection or other severe concomitant medical illness or psychiatric disease.

4. Patients with active, concomitant malignancies.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Non-randomised trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
100 patients with gout (cases) and 100 controls (without gout) will be enrolled. There is no randomisation
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Single group
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 4488 0
New Zealand
State/province [1] 4488 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 285825 0
Name [1] 285825 0
University of Otago
Address [1] 285825 0
P.O.Box 56 Dunedin 9016
Country [1] 285825 0
New Zealand
Funding source category [2] 294538 0
Name [2] 294538 0
Lottery Health New Zealand
Address [2] 294538 0
The Department of Internal Affairs
46 Waring Taylor Street
PO Box 805
Country [2] 294538 0
New Zealand
Primary sponsor type
University of Otago, Christchurch
POBox 4345 Christchurch 8140
New Zealand
Secondary sponsor category [1] 284651 0
Name [1] 284651 0
Address [1] 284651 0
Country [1] 284651 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 287846 0
New Zealand Health and Disability Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 287846 0
Ministry of Health
No 1 The Terrace
PO Box 5013
Wellington 6011
Ethics committee country [1] 287846 0
New Zealand
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 287846 0
Approval date [1] 287846 0
Ethics approval number [1] 287846 0

Brief summary
Gout is a major problem in New Zealand. High levels of uric acid in the blood are the cause of gout. Fructose is a sugar that is found in many fruits and honey. It has been shown that fructose can increase blood uric acid levels and thus contribute to gout. We currently recommend that people with gout reduce their intake of fructose to help improve their gout.
About 20% of people do not absorb fructose in the gut. This can lead to abdominal symptoms. For people who do not absorb fructose, reducing fructose intake is not likely to be so important in controlling their gout. The aim of this study is to find out if people with gout are more likely to absorb fructose than people without gout.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 34583 0
Prof Lisa Stamp
Address 34583 0
Department of Medicine
University of Otago, Christchurch
P.O.Box 4345
Christchurch 8014
Country 34583 0
New Zealand
Phone 34583 0
Fax 34583 0
Email 34583 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 17830 0
Prof Lisa Stamp
Address 17830 0
Department of Medicine
University of Otago, Christchurch
P.O.Box 4345
Christchurch 8014
Country 17830 0
New Zealand
Phone 17830 0
0064 3640953
Fax 17830 0
Email 17830 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 8758 0
Prof Lisa Stamp
Address 8758 0
Department of Medicine
University of Otago, Christchurch
P.O.Box 4345
Christchurch 8014
Country 8758 0
New Zealand
Phone 8758 0
0064 3640953
Fax 8758 0
Email 8758 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary