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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Lifestyle of our Kids study: Influences of physical activity and physical education on the psychophysical health of Australian children
Scientific title
Influences of physical activity and physical education on the psychophysical health of Australian children
Secondary ID [1] 273515 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
LOOK study
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Public Health 285488 0
Epidemiology 285489 0
Condition category
Condition code
Public Health 285677 285677 0 0
Health promotion/education

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Physical education delivered by specialist teachers, twice a week for 50 minutes each session, during a period of four primary school years, from grades 3 to 6. The physical education is based on an exploratory approach where children are challenged with movement tasks. The emphasis is on balance and gross motor skills as well as fine motor skills including eye hand coordination. There is also an emphaisis on engaging every child and enjoyment of the movement experience and de-emphasis on individual competition. The physical educators are specialist teachers from the Bluearth Foundation (, all trained teachers, who participate in the activities with the children.
Intervention code [1] 283830 0
Comparator / control treatment
Physical education delivered by the classroom, non-specialist teachers
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 286070 0
Primary Outcome 1: insulin resistance by homeostatic model of insulin resistance HOMA-IR, at three time points, each two years, at end of graede 2 (average age 8 years), end of grade 4 (age 10 years) and end of grade 6 (age 12 years)
Timepoint [1] 286070 0
At baseline grade 2, then grade 4, 6 following randomization of schools selected for intervention
Primary outcome [2] 286071 0
Primary Outcome 2: Obesity and overweight by dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA)
Timepoint [2] 286071 0
At baseline grade 2, then grades 4, 6 following randomization of schools selected for intervention
Primary outcome [3] 286072 0
Bone strength as measured by bone mineral density (DEXA) and bone geometry (periperal quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)
Timepoint [3] 286072 0
At baseline grade 2, then grades 4, 6 following randomization of schools selected for intervention
Secondary outcome [1] 295071 0
Academic performance as assessed by NAPLAN Australian Government tests of numeracy and literacy
Timepoint [1] 295071 0
At grade 3 and grade 5 when national tests are conducted
Secondary outcome [2] 295072 0
Eye-hand coordination by a ball throw and catch test
Timepoint [2] 295072 0
At baseline grade 2, then grades 4, 6 following randomization of schools selected for intervention

Key inclusion criteria
Free-living children in grade 2 of primary public schools in outer Canberra suburbs
Minimum age
7 Years
Maximum age
12 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
chronic illness of any type or disability that prevents participation in vigorous physical activity

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Concealed envelopes with schools names were randomly selected and one by one alternatedly allocated to intervention or school group.
This occurred indepenently of any school, carried out by the LOOK research director and Data Bank manager.
The school was then notified of the decision. All schools accepted this procedure and their allocation.
The treatment was specialized physical education delivered twice weekly by specialist teachers (university qualified) provided by the Bluearth Foundation, a not for profit provider of physical activity programs in schools Outcomes were assessed by groups of researchers in several disciplines from the Australian National University (Statistics, metabolic physiology, psychology) and the Canberra Hospital (pathology, pediatrics, cardiology), University of Canberra (pedagogy) and Deakin University (skeletal development).
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
1.Selection of fully government funded schools outside the inner suburbs all situated in separate suburbs
2. Documentation of approval from Ethics committee, Government authority, school principal, parent and child.
3. Acceptance by school principal of participation whether or not allocated to intervention or control
3. Schools were randomly allocated to intervention or control group using school names in sealed envelopes, shuffling thoroughly, opening the envelopes, and alternately allocating each school to intervention and control
4. 830 upils in grade 2 of each school were the participants. This constituted 27% of all grade 2 pupils in the ACT fully government funded school system.
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
The random allocation was at the school level, not the subject level, this being necessary to prevent communication and potential influence of the treatment on the control group (intergroup contamination).
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Active, not recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 4760 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [2] 4761 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [3] 4762 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [4] 4763 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [5] 4764 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [6] 4765 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [7] 4766 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [8] 4767 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [9] 4768 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [10] 4769 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [11] 4770 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [12] 4771 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 284308 0
Name [1] 284308 0
Commonwealth Education Trust
Address [1] 284308 0
New Zealand House
Haymarket St
London SW1
Country [1] 284308 0
United Kingdom
Primary sponsor type
ANU College of Medicine, Biology and the Environment
Level 2, Peter Baume Building 42
Linnaeus Way
The Australian National University
Canberra ACT 0200
Secondary sponsor category [1] 283252 0
Name [1] 283252 0
The Canberra Hospital
Address [1] 283252 0
The Clinical Investigations Unit Canberra Hospital
Yamba Drive
ACT 2605
Country [1] 283252 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 286431 0
Australian Institute of Sport and Australian Sports Commission Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 286431 0
PO Box 176 Belconnen
Ethics committee country [1] 286431 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 286431 0
Approval date [1] 286431 0
Ethics approval number [1] 286431 0

Brief summary
The LOOK study aims to investigate (a) the effect of specialist taught physical education and (b) the effect of physical activity and body composition on the physical and psychological health and development in primary school children.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
1. Physical Education, Obesity, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Investigation of Australian Elementary School Children.

Telford RD, Cunningham RB, Fitzgerald R, Olive LS, Prosser L, Jiang X, Telford RM.

Am J Public Health. 2011 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print]

2.Establishment of pediatric reference intervals on a large cohort of healthy children.

Southcott EK, Kerrigan JL, Potter JM, Telford RD, Waring P, Reynolds GJ, Lafferty AR, Hickman PE.

Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Oct 9;411(19-20):1421-7. Epub 2010 Jun 22.

3.Relationship between indices of adiposity obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in pre-pubertal children.

Ducher G, Daly RM, Hill B, Eser P, Naughton GA, Gravenmaker KJ, Seibel MJ, Javaid A, Telford RD, Bass SL.

Ann Hum Biol. 2009 Nov-Dec;36(6):705-16.

4.Day-dependent step-count patterns and their persistence over 3 years in 8-10-year-old children: the LOOK project.

Telford RD, Cunningham RB, Telford RM.

Ann Hum Biol. 2009 Nov-Dec;36(6):669-79.

5.Overweight children have a greater proportion of fat mass relative to muscle mass in the upper limbs than in the lower limbs: implications for bone strength at the distal forearm.

Ducher G, Bass SL, Naughton GA, Eser P, Telford RD, Daly RM.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;90(4):1104-11. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

6.Contrasting longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between insulin resistance and percentage of body fat, fitness, and physical activity in children-the LOOK study.

Telford RD, Cunningham RB, Shaw JE, Dunstan DW, Lafferty AR, Reynolds GJ, Hickman PE, Southcott E, Potter JM, Waring P, Telford RM.

Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Dec;10(8):500-7. Epub 2009 Apr 30.

8.Influence of adiposity and physical activity on arterial stiffness in healthy children: the lifestyle of our kids study.

Sakuragi S, Abhayaratna K, Gravenmaker KJ, O'Reilly C, Srikusalanukul W, Budge MM, Telford RD, Abhayaratna WP.

Hypertension. 2009 Apr;53(4):611-6. Epub 2009 Mar 9.

9.Reformulation of BMI and percent body fat to remove the height bias in 8-year-olds.

Telford RD, Cunningham RB.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Sep;16(9):2175-81.

10.Discordance of international adiposity classifications in Australian boys and girls - the LOOK study.

Telford RD, Cunningham RB, Daly RM, Reynolds GJ, Lafferty AR, Gravenmaker KJ, Budge MM, Javaid A, Bass SL, Telford RM.

Ann Hum Biol. 2008 May-Jun;35(3):334-41.

12.The lifestyle of our kids (LOOK) project: outline of methods.

Telford RD, Bass SL, Budge MM, Byrne DG, Carlson JS, Coles D, Cunningham RB, Daly RM, Dunstan DW, English R, Fitzgerald R, Eser P, Gravenmaker KJ, Haynes W, Hickman PE, Javaid A, Jiang X, Lafferty T, McGrath M, Martin MK, Naughton GA, Potter JM, Potter SJ, Prosser L, Pyne DB, Reynolds GJ, Saunders PU, Seibel MJ, Shaw JE, Southcott E, Srikusalanukul W, Stuckey D, Telford RM, Thomas K, Tallis K, Waring P.

J Sci Med Sport. 2009 Jan;12(1):156-63. Epub 2007 Oct 24.

13.Low physical activity and obesity: causes of chronic disease or simply predictors?

Telford RD.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug;39(8):1233-40. Review.
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 33477 0
Address 33477 0
Country 33477 0
Phone 33477 0
Fax 33477 0
Email 33477 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 16724 0
Richard D Telford
Address 16724 0
Clinical Investigations Unit
The Canberra Hospital
Level 2 Bldg 1
Yamba Drive
Garran ACT 2605
Country 16724 0
Phone 16724 0
+61 2 62442811
Fax 16724 0
Email 16724 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 7652 0
Richard D Telford
Address 7652 0
Clinical Investigations Unit
The Canberra Hospital
Level 2 Bldg 1
Yamba Drive
Garran ACT 2605
Country 7652 0
Phone 7652 0
+61 2 62442811
Fax 7652 0
Email 7652 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary