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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
effectiveness of local dental anaesthetic in children
Scientific title
effectiveness of Articaine 4% with 1:100,000 adrenaline in obtaining local dental analgesia of the lower back teeth among children
Secondary ID [1] 252872 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
dental local analgesia 258401 0
Condition category
Condition code
Oral and Gastrointestinal 258566 258566 0 0
Other diseases of the mouth, teeth, oesophagus, digestive system including liver and colon
Anaesthesiology 258590 258590 0 0

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Comparison of the effectiveness of articaine 4% against lignocaine 2% in obtaining dental local analgesia among children when delivered as a buccal infiltration or inferior alveolar nerve block injections for restorative procedures in mandibular posterior teeth. Dosage of trial anaesthetic limited only to a maximum of 2.2 ml cartridge of the local anaesthetic agent. Dosage of local analgesic agent titrated to maximum of 5 mg/kg body weight. If local analgesia was not achieved with the trial anaesthetic patient reappointed for another appointment for the treatment to be completed using standard treatment protocol or supplement with standard local anaesthetic (Lignociane 2%) if the weight of the child allowed supplementation, doseage not to exceed 5mg/kg body weight. Mode of administration, buccal or inferior alveolar block, and type of local anaesthetic used at first visit, test or control, determined by random allocation.
Intervention code [1] 257399 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Lignocaine 2% with 1:100,000 adrenaline. Mode of administration the same method as determined for the test anaesthetic, but on the contralateral side of the mouth.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 259414 0
Proportion of children with successful local analgesia to complete restorations in mandibular posterior teeth. Child's response and report of no sensation of pain on undertaking restorative procedures using conventional air-turbine and engine driven rotary cutting hand-pieces was used as indicator of adequacy and success of local analgesia.
Timepoint [1] 259414 0
The restorative procedures commenced 5 minutes after completion of local anaesthetc administration with a further wait of another 5 minutes if discomfort was reported.
Secondary outcome [1] 265954 0
Child's report of pain
Timepoint [1] 265954 0
Observations taken by assistant using the faces pain scale after completion of local anaesthetic administration and restorative treatment.
Secondary outcome [2] 265989 0
parental report of parent/carer on pain by completing a parent report of pain questionnaire.
Timepoint [2] 265989 0
24 hours after procedure
Secondary outcome [3] 265990 0
observation of child's reactions
Timepoint [3] 265990 0
during administration of local anaesthetic and during restorative procedures, observations taken by dental assistant using the CHEOPS pain scale.
Secondary outcome [4] 265991 0
verbal reports of any adverse events; pain at injection site, pain elsewhere, soft tissue injury (lip biting).
Timepoint [4] 265991 0
Contact with child/parent at 2 hours, 4 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after completion of local anaesthetic administration by phone, text messaging.

Key inclusion criteria
Child registered with the School Dental Service in Western Australia. Minimum body weight 20 kg.
Require carious bilateral mandibular posterior teeth restored.
Minimum age
5 Years
Maximum age
17 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
There must be no:
a. History of allergy to local anaesthetic or any of its constituents.
b. Medical conditions contraindicating the use of local analgesia or to undergo dental treatment under local analgesia.
c. medications being taken likely to interfere with reporting of pain (analgesics).
d. Neurological disorders with sensory disturbances or communication difficulties.
e. Non-cooperative behaviour for dental treatment under local analgesia.
f. Difficulty with communicating effectively in the English language.
g. Possibility of pregnancy.
h. Evidence of soft tissue infection/inflammation near site of injection.
i. Signs of irreversible pulpal involvement of the study teeth.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Informed consent sought from child and parent when child presented for a recall examination and was found to be in need of restorative care on bilateral mandibular posterior teeth. Allocation was determined by a trial coordinator located at a remote site using a table of random numbers to select blocks by phone contact.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
The child was allocated to receive test or control agent and order of administration determined by computer generated permuted blocks with block size determined by the computer.
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
split mouth design. Child serves as both control and test with the trial anaesthetic delivered to either the right side or left side using the same mode of delivery for each child (buccal infiltration or block analgesia), type of anaesthetic used at first visit and technique of delivery of anaesthetic determined by random assignment.
Phase 4
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 3314 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [2] 3315 0
Recruitment postcode(s) [3] 3316 0

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 257838 0
Name [1] 257838 0
Dental Health Services Western Australia
Address [1] 257838 0
43 Mt Henry Road
Como, 6152
Perth, Western Australia
Country [1] 257838 0
Primary sponsor type
Dental Health Services, Western Australia
43 Mt Henry rd
Como, 6152
Perth, Western Australia
Secondary sponsor category [1] 257040 0
Commercial sector/Industry
Name [1] 257040 0
Address [1] 257040 0
PO Box 288

Country [1] 257040 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 259874 0
University of western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 259874 0
Human Research Ethics Committee
Research Services, University of Western Australia
35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009.
Ethics committee country [1] 259874 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 259874 0
Approval date [1] 259874 0
Ethics approval number [1] 259874 0

Brief summary
The aim of the study is to determine if Articaine was more effective than Lignocaine in achieving local analgesia for dental fillings in the back teeth in the lower jaw among children when using two different techniques of anaesthetic delivery. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in achieving local analgesia between Articaine 4% and Lignocaine 2%.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 31772 0
Address 31772 0
Country 31772 0
Phone 31772 0
Fax 31772 0
Email 31772 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 15019 0
peter arrow
Address 15019 0
Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health
University of Adelaide
Level 1
122 Frome Street
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Country 15019 0
Phone 15019 0
+61 08 8303 4171
Fax 15019 0
Email 15019 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 5947 0
peter arrow
Address 5947 0
Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health
University of Adelaide
Level 1
122 Frome Street
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Country 5947 0
Phone 5947 0
+61 08 8303 4171
Fax 5947 0
Email 5947 0

No information has been provided regarding IPD availability
Summary results
No Results