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Trial details imported from

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Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated

Titles & IDs
Public title
Cardiopulmonary-bypass and Reno-protective Effect of Atorvastatin Trial
Scientific title
A Phase II Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of the Effect of Atorvastatin on Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Elective Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
Secondary ID [1] 0 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Acute Kidney Dysfunction 0 0
Condition category
Condition code

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Treatment: Drugs - Atorvastatin
Treatment: Drugs - Placebo

Active Comparator: 1 -

Placebo Comparator: 2 -

Treatment: Drugs: Atorvastatin
Atorvastatin tablet

Treatment: Drugs: Placebo
Placebo tablet

Intervention code [1] 0 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 0 0
Change in serum creatinine from baseline to peak level
Timepoint [1] 0 0
within first two-seven postoperative days
Secondary outcome [1] 0 0
Proportion of patients developing an increase in serum creatinine > 25% or >44µmicromol/L from baseline to peak level
Timepoint [1] 0 0
within first two-seven postoperative days
Secondary outcome [2] 0 0
Proportion of patients developing any of the RIFLE criteria: R, I or F
Timepoint [2] 0 0
within first seven postoperative days
Secondary outcome [3] 0 0
Proportion of patients developing any of the AKI stages: 1, 2 or 3 (using network definition)
Timepoint [3] 0 0
within first seven postoperative days
Secondary outcome [4] 0 0
Change in NGAL from baseline to peak
Timepoint [4] 0 0
within first 24 postoperatively
Secondary outcome [5] 0 0
Requirement of renal replacement therapy
Timepoint [5] 0 0
within hospital stay
Secondary outcome [6] 0 0
Length of stay in Intensive care
Timepoint [6] 0 0
from admission to discharge from Intensive care
Secondary outcome [7] 0 0
Length of stay in Hospital
Timepoint [7] 0 0
from admission to discharge from hospital
Secondary outcome [8] 0 0
Timepoint [8] 0 0
during hospital stay

Key inclusion criteria
- Cardiac surgical patients in whom the use of cardiopulmonary bypass was planned

- Written informed consent of patient

- Age > 18 years

- And having at least one ore more of the following risk factors for postoperative AKI:

- Age =/> 70 years

- Preoperative plasma creatinine >120 µmol/L, New York Heart Association class
III/IV or LVEF <35%

- Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

- Valve surgery (with or without coronary artery bypass graft)

- Redo cardiac surgery
Minimum age
18 Years
Maximum age
No limit
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
- An emergency operation is indicated (within 24 hours after hospital admission or on
intra-aortic balloon pump)

- Pregnancy is confirmed or breastfeeding is present

- A renal allograft is present

- Preoperative acute renal failure within 6 weeks (acute rise in serum creatinine > 50%
from baseline) is present

- Pre-operative end stage renal disease (serum creatinine > 300 µmol/L) is present

- Chronic moderate to high dose corticosteroid therapy (>10 mg/d prednisone or
equivalent) is present

- Known Allergy to Atorvastatin

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?
The people receiving the treatment/s
The people administering the treatment/s
The people assessing the outcomes
The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Phase 2/Phase 3
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Data analysis
Reason for early stopping/withdrawal
Other reasons
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 0 0
Austin Health - Melbourne
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 0 0
3084 - Melbourne

Funding & Sponsors
Primary sponsor type
Austin Health

Ethics approval
Ethics application status

Brief summary
Acute kidney dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery. While many patients suffer no
long-term ill effects from post-operative kidney dysfunction, some require initiation of
dialysis therapy that can contribute to long-term morbidity. Further, there is evidence to
suggest that those patients requiring dialysis after cardiac surgery have a higher risk of
death in hospital.

The exact reasons why some patients develop acute kidney dysfunction after cardiac surgery is
not well understood. However, research evidence to date has suggested that the presence of
co-morbid illnesses (i.e., diabetes mellitus) and exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass
(heart-lung machine used during operation when heart is stopped). Cardiopulmonary bypass, in
particular, has been shown to over-activate several aspect of the body's immune system. Such
over-activity can induce oxidative stress and contribute to acute kidney dysfunction.

The investigators believe that the statin drug, atorvastatin, might reduce the oxidative
stress that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass, and thus, prevent or reduce the magnitude
of acute kidney dysfunction in those patients at highest risk. The investigators hope to give
atorvastatin (40 mg orally) to patients immediately prior to and for 3 days after cardiac
surgery, and to compare the effects on kidney function with patients who have not had

Atorvastatin is the most commonly prescribed medication in Australia and is used to reduce
blood cholesterol levels and decrease the risk of heart attacks and stroke. Recently,
however, it has been discovered that atorvastatin may be useful for prevention of
inflammation and oxidative stress in other conditions, such as following cardiac surgery with
cardiopulmonary bypass.

Thus, the investigators plan to examine whether atorvastatin can prevent acute kidney
dysfunction. This trial as planned is a pilot study. If atorvastatin shows promising evidence
of reduction in acute kidney dysfunction, further studies on a larger scale would be required
to justify its general use.

The investigators plan to determine whether atorvastatin, a statin drug, possesses kidney
protective effects in patients at risk for perioperative acute kidney dysfunction after
cardiac surgery and exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass.

This is a pilot, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

The investigators plan to administer atorvastatin (40 mg orally) or placebo to patients
immediately prior to and for 3 days after cardiac surgery. The atorvastatin/placebo will be
given orally either by orogastric tube after induction of anaesthesia or swallowed by the

Whether a particular patient receives the atorvastatin or placebo will be decided at random,
and neither the patient nor the investigators will be aware of the allocated treatment.

The investigators plan to measure kidney function before and after cardiac surgery using the
standard blood tests. The investigators also plan to measure markers of inflammation and
oxidative stress in the blood. This may give insight into the mechanisms whereby atorvastatin
exerts its effects. The investigators will also take four 20 ml samples of blood, spaced
before, and after the operation, from the arterial catheter routinely inserted in every
patient undergoing cardiac surgery.

The investigators believe that there will be no significant additional risk to a patient who
participates in the study, and no discomfort other than that normally associated with cardiac
surgery. Informed consent will be obtained from the patient prior to the operation by one of
the investigators or the ICU research nurse. The clinical care of a patient who does not
consent for any reason will not be affected.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 0 0
Address 0 0
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 0 0
Address 0 0
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for scientific queries

Summary results
Other publications