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Trial details imported from

For full trial details, please see the original record at

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated

Titles & IDs
Public title
Long-term Antibiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Otitis Media in Aborignal Children
Scientific title
Amoxycillin Versus Placebo for Resolution of Otitis Media With Effusion and Prevention of Acute Otitis Media With Perforation in Aboriginal Infants: a Randomised Controlled Trial.
Secondary ID [1] 0 0
NHMRC 954086
Secondary ID [2] 0 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Otitis Media 0 0
Condition category
Condition code
Ear 0 0 0 0
Other ear disorders
Infection 0 0 0 0
Other infectious diseases
Infection 0 0 0 0
Studies of infection and infectious agents

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Treatment: Drugs - Amoxycillin
Treatment: Drugs - Placebo equivalent to amoxycillin

Active Comparator: 1 -

Placebo Comparator: 2 -

Treatment: Drugs: Amoxycillin
50 mg/kg/day twice daily

Treatment: Drugs: Placebo equivalent to amoxycillin
50 mg/kg/d twice daily

Intervention code [1] 0 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 0 0
Proportion of children with middle ear effusion
Timepoint [1] 0 0
end of intervention
Primary outcome [2] 0 0
Proportion of study visits at which middle ear effusion detected
Timepoint [2] 0 0
during intervention
Secondary outcome [1] 0 0
Proportion of infants with tympanic membrane perforation
Timepoint [1] 0 0
end of intervention
Secondary outcome [2] 0 0
Proportion of study visits with tympanic membrane perforation
Timepoint [2] 0 0
during intervention
Secondary outcome [3] 0 0
Proportion of infants with nasopharyngeal colonisation with resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
Timepoint [3] 0 0
end of intervention
Secondary outcome [4] 0 0
proportion of infants withdrawn from study due to intervention adverse events
Timepoint [4] 0 0
end of intervention

Key inclusion criteria
- Australian Aboriginal

- Living in participating remote community

- Less than 12 months of age
Minimum age
No limit
Maximum age
12 Months
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
- Less than 32 weeks gestation

- Chronic condition requiring continuous antibiotic

- Ear, nose or throat abnormality

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?
The people receiving the treatment/s
The people administering the treatment/s
The people assessing the outcomes
The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Other design features
Phase 4
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment status
Data analysis
Reason for early stopping/withdrawal
Other reasons
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment hospital [1] 0 0
Menzies School of Health Research - Darwin
Recruitment postcode(s) [1] 0 0
0811 - Darwin

Funding & Sponsors
Primary sponsor type
Menzies School of Health Research
Other collaborator category [1] 0 0
Name [1] 0 0
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia
Address [1] 0 0
Country [1] 0 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status

Brief summary
This clinical trial was conducted in a population where tympanic membrane perforation occurs
in 60% infants in the first year of life. Nasopharyngeal colonisation (nasal contamination)
with pathogenic bacteria occurs within weeks of life and predicts persistent middle ear
infection throughout childhood. The trial aimed to assess whether twice daily antibiotics
commencing at first detection of middle ear effusion would cure the infection and/or prevent
disease progression, compared to placebo.

The study was conducted in three remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory of
Australia. The annual birth cohort was 45.

Aboriginal infants were seen as soon as possible after birth, and at 2 weekly intervals until
middle ear effusion was detected by pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Following consent,
infants were randomised to either amoxycillin(50 mg/kg/d BD) or placebo equivalent for up to
24 weeks, or until normal middle ear status was detected at 2 consecutive monthly scheduled
examinations. At monthly examinations the infant also had a general health check, parents
were interviewed, child's medical record was reviewed, and nasopharyngeal swabs were
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Leach AJ, Morris PS. Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD004401. Review.
Morris PS, Leach AJ, Halpin S, Mellon G, Gadil G, Wigger C, Mackenzie G, Wilson C, Gadil E, Torzillo P. An overview of acute otitis media in Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Vaccine. 2007 Mar 22;25(13):2389-93. Epub 2006 Sep 22.
Morris PS, Leach AJ, Silberberg P, Mellon G, Wilson C, Hamilton E, Beissbarth J. Otitis media in young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Pediatr. 2005 Jul 20;5:27.
Leach AJ, Morris PS. Perspectives on infective ear disease in indigenous Australian children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2001 Dec;37(6):529-30. Review.
Coates HL, Morris PS, Leach AJ, Couzos S. Otitis media in Aboriginal children: tackling a major health problem. Med J Aust. 2002 Aug 19;177(4):177-8.
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 0 0
John D Mathews, PhD, DSc.
Address 0 0
Menzies School of Health Research and University of Melbourne
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 0 0
Address 0 0
Country 0 0
Phone 0 0
Fax 0 0
Email 0 0
Contact person for scientific queries

Summary results
Other publications