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Trial registered on ANZCTR

Registration number
Ethics application status
Date submitted
Date registered
Date last updated
Date data sharing statement initially provided
Type of registration
Prospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Internet-Based Professional Learning to Help Teachers Promote Activity in Youth with Intellectual Disability. The iPLAY For Inclusion Project: iPLAY4i
Scientific title
Internet-Based Professional Learning to Help Teachers Promote Activity in Youth with Intellectual Disability. The iPLAY For Inclusion Project: iPLAY4i: The iPLAY4I Cluster Randomised Control Trial.
Secondary ID [1] 300747 0
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record
Parent study: ACTRN12616000731493

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Physical inactivity in children with intellectual disabilities. 316587 0
Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness. 316588 0
Condition category
Condition code
Public Health 314817 314817 0 0
Health promotion/education

Study type
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
This intervention aims to build upon two studies conducted with students in mainstream classes (Cohen et al. 2015; Lonsdale et al. 2016). These previous implementations included six components to promote physical activity participation and fundamental movement skill competency. iPLAY for inclusion will include similar components, but will include additional content on positive behaviour support (MacDonald and McGill 2013) and universal design for learning (Ok et al. 2017).

As per previous studies (Lonsdale et al. 2016), an iPLAY mentor (employed by the project team) will deliver a professional learning workshop and follow-up individualized mentoring to primary teachers. These activities will be supported by an online learning and resource platform (following Lonsdale et al. 2016). Teachers within the schools will then deliver intervention components. All classroom teachers will deliver curricular components of the intervention (e.g., quality PE and school sport). The curricular components are largely built around making classes SAAFE (Lubans et al. 2017): Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair and Enjoyable. Within each school the principal will identify up to three classroom teachers as ‘Leaders’. Leaders will deliver non-curricular components of the intervention (e.g., active playgrounds) and support other teachers with the implementation of curricular components.

Mentors will be current and recently retired teachers with NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA) specialist accreditation in Health and PE. These specialist teachers are ideally placed to deliver the intervention as primary school teachers will regard them as credible. During 2.5 days of face-to-face workshops, the project team will train mentors to deliver the intervention.
Intervention code [1] 317074 0
Intervention code [2] 317075 0
Intervention code [3] 317078 0
Comparator / control treatment
Wait-list control: after the 12 month intervention period, and following post-test data collection, the control schools will be offered the intervention.
Control group

Primary outcome [1] 323173 0
Fundamental Movement Skills measured by competence on the 'Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (Webster & Ulrich, 2017). We will include the three skills for each subscale that explained the most variance in children with intellectual disabilities (see Magistro et al., 2018; Simons et al., 2008). The primary outcome will be the raw score, totalled across both trials of all six skills: run, gallop, hop, one-hand strike, dribble, and kick.
Timepoint [1] 323173 0
Baseline and 12 months post-baseline.
Secondary outcome [1] 381033 0
Cardiorespiratory fitness. This will be measured with a 300-yard run where children will be asked to run or walk as fast as they can over 300 yards (timed). This time will be our indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness.
Timepoint [1] 381033 0
Baseline and 12 months post-baseline.
Secondary outcome [2] 381089 0
Physical Activity. We will also use an objective measure (GENEActiv wrist-worn accelerometers) for seven days to measure students' physical activity at home and in school.
Timepoint [2] 381089 0
Baseline and 12 months post-baseline.
Secondary outcome [3] 381090 0
Students will also be asked questions about their physical self-concept via individual administration of the self-description questionnaire, individual administration (SDQ-IA physical subscale; Marsh et al., 2005; Tracey & Marsh, 2000). We selected the six items of the physical self-concept subscale that did not overlap with the enjoyment measure, described below. In the individual administration version, students are guided by a researcher to first ask whether they agree with the statement, then asked to what extent. We chose this response mechanism for all other assessments for consistency and because it has been validated in children with intellectual disability (Tracey & Marsh, 2000). Students will use this response scale to report on their enjoyment for physical activity and their life satisfaction. For enjoyment, three items were chosen from the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (e.g., “I enjoy sport and PE”; Motl et al., 2001). For life-satisfaction, students will rate their wellbeing on the personal wellbeing index for intellectual disability (Cummins & Lau, 2005), using the single-item measure of life satisfaction because it has been shown to demonstrate comparable validity to longer measures (Cheung & Lucas, 2014).
Timepoint [3] 381090 0
Baseline and 12 months post-baseline.

Key inclusion criteria
Government primary schools will be invited to participate on the basis of the following criteria:
School is within 3 hours of our university
School has not previously completed our iPLAY
School has 10 or more children with intellectual disabilities in Years 2–5

In those schools, all teachers will be eligible to participate in professional learning, with student-level data only collected from children with intellectual disabilities in Years 2–5.
Minimum age
6 Years
Maximum age
12 Years
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Key exclusion criteria
Children with intellectual disabilities will be excluded under two circumstances. 1] Children will be excluded if they have a physical disability that precludes them from running. Children with mild physical disabilities will still be eligible, because these disabilities are often comorbid with intellectual disabilities. For example, children in wheelchairs would be excluded, but children with mild cerebral palsy would be included. Similarly, children will still be eligible if they have mild, comorbid developmental disorders (e.g., level 1 Autism Spectrum Disorder, mild Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder); however, 2] children will be excluded if their developmental disorder precludes them from responding to verbal questions (e.g., level 2 and 3 Autism Spectrum Disorder would be excluded based on this criteria).

Study design
Purpose of the study
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Allocation will be performed by a random number generator by a statistician that is not part of the team. As a result, the person enrolling schools will not be able to foresee the treatment allocation.
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Schools will be randomised in waves as they are recruited. When schools are recruited, they will be matched on school type (mainstream vs. schools for special purposes), Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA), and location (urban vs. remote). Then, an experienced statistician who is not part of the research team will use a computer-generated algorithm (Moore & Schnakenberg, 2016) to randomised matched schools.
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?

Intervention assignment
Other design features
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis
To assess pre-post differences on all student-reported variables, we will use linear mixed models. Student scores will be nested within teachers and we will account for this via a random intercept. We will assess the interaction between treatment and time on gross fundamental movement skill competency. We hypothesise that the influence of time on competency will be greater for those in the intervention group. This process will also be used to assess intervention effects for all secondary outcomes (i.e., cardio-respiratory fitness, self-concept, motivation, wellbeing, physical activity). We will conduct sensitivity analyses to assess whether findings are robust when controlling for demographic variables. We’ll also conduct an as-per-protocol analysis by assessing whether completion of the professional learning moderates the effect of the intervention. Rather than using an arbitrary cut-off, we will use learning analytics to identify the percentage of the course that teachers completed at post-test. We will then assess whether this percentage explains variance in the effect of the program on their students. Using full information maximum likelihood to account for attrition, our data will follow intention-to-treat procedures.

Recruitment status
Not yet recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Date of last participant enrolment
Date of last data collection
Sample size
Accrual to date
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 305185 0
Government body
Name [1] 305185 0
Sport Australia
Address [1] 305185 0
Australian Sports Commission
Leverrier Street
Bruce ACT 2617
PO Box 176
ABN 67 374 695 240
Country [1] 305185 0
Funding source category [2] 305201 0
Government body
Name [2] 305201 0
New South Wales Department of Education School Sport Unit
Address [2] 305201 0
NSW Department of Education
35 Bridge Street,
Sydney NSW 2000
Country [2] 305201 0
Primary sponsor type
Australian Catholic University
ACU North Sydney Campus
Motivation and Behaviour Research Program
Level 9, 33 Berry Street
North Sydney
Secondary sponsor category [1] 305572 0
Name [1] 305572 0
Western Sydney University
Address [1] 305572 0
Horsley Rd & Bullecourt Ave,
Milperra NSW 2214
Country [1] 305572 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Ethics committee name [1] 305541 0
State Education Research Applications Process
Ethics committee address [1] 305541 0
Policy, Planning and Reporting (SERAP)
NSW Department of Education and Communities
Locked Bag 53
Darlinghurst NSW 1300
Ethics committee country [1] 305541 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 305541 0
Approval date [1] 305541 0
Ethics approval number [1] 305541 0
Ethics committee name [2] 305556 0
Australian Catholic University Human Research Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [2] 305556 0
Manager, Ethics c/o Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research), Australian Catholic University, North Sydney
Campus PO Box 968. NORTH SYDNEY, NSW 2059 Ph.: 02 9739 2519 Fax: 02 9739 2870 Email:
Ethics committee country [2] 305556 0
Date submitted for ethics approval [2] 305556 0
Approval date [2] 305556 0
Ethics approval number [2] 305556 0

Brief summary
Australia’s children are among the least active in the world. Physical inactivity is a particularly big problem for children with intellectual disabilities. Schools are ideal places to promote physical activity. This school-based intervention, iPLAY4i, will involve two key steps: we will train participating teachers in how to promote physical activity at school; and we will also support a few extra teachers while they try to promote a better culture of physical activity within the school. We hypothesise that this intervention will lead to benefits for children with intellectual disabilities, specifically: higher physical activity, higher physical fitness, better fundamental movement skills, and higher confidence, motivation, and wellbeing.
Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Principal investigator
Name 100726 0
Prof Chris Lonsdale
Address 100726 0
Institute for Positive Psychology and Education
Australian Catholic University
Level 9,
33 Berry Street,
North Sydney,
NSW, 2060
Country 100726 0
Phone 100726 0
+61 2 9701 4642
Fax 100726 0
Email 100726 0
Contact person for public queries
Name 100727 0
Dr Michael Noetel
Address 100727 0
School of Behavioural and Health Sciences (Qld)
Building 208
Level 2
1100 Nudgee Road
Banyo QLD 4014
Country 100727 0
Phone 100727 0
+61 736237256
Fax 100727 0
Email 100727 0
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 100728 0
Dr Michael Noetel
Address 100728 0
School of Behavioural and Health Sciences (Qld)
Building 208
Level 2
1100 Nudgee Road
Banyo QLD 4014
Country 100728 0
Phone 100728 0
+61 736237256
Fax 100728 0
Email 100728 0

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
What data in particular will be shared?
De-identified results of all assessments
When will data be available (start and end dates)?
Pre/post data will be available from the end of 2021 with no end-point determined
Available to whom?
On a case-by-case basis at the discretion of Primary Sponsor
Available for what types of analyses?
For IPD meta-analyses
How or where can data be obtained?
Via RedCAP
What supporting documents are/will be available?
Study protocol
How or where can supporting documents be obtained?
Type [1] 7293 0
Study protocol
Citation [1] 7293 0
Link [1] 7293 0
Email [1] 7293 0
Other [1] 7293 0
Summary results
No Results