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Trial registered on ANZCTR


Registration number
ACTRN12619001788167
Ethics application status
Approved
Date submitted
18/09/2019
Date registered
19/12/2019
Date last updated
19/12/2019
Date data sharing statement initially provided
19/12/2019
Date results information initially provided
19/12/2019
Type of registration
Retrospectively registered

Titles & IDs
Public title
Growing Memories: Teaching Mothers to Reminisce to Enrich Children's Memories
Scientific title
Growing Memories: Coaching in Elaborative Reminiscing with Mothers to Foster Children's Autobiographical Memory Development
Secondary ID [1] 299333 0
Nil known
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
Autobiographical Memory 314478 0
Oral Narratives 314479 0
Condition category
Condition code
Mental Health 312812 312812 0 0
Studies of normal psychology, cognitive function and behaviour

Intervention/exposure
Study type
Interventional
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
The Growing Memories study was designed as an experimental test of the causal role of mothers' elaborative reminiscing interactions for children's autobiographical memory development, based on Reese, Fivush, and Haden's (1993) theory of the role of parental elaboration for children's memory development.

Trained researchers provided mothers of toddlers with several brief instructional sessions in their home (about 15 minutes each) on how to have successful conversations about the past with their toddler. A "Tips for Talking about the Past" sheet was provided that lists techniques for successful reminiscing conversations: a focus on one-time events, the use of open-ended questions, praising children's responses, following in on what the child wants to talk about, rephrasing questions with new information if child doesn't respond, and being affectionate during the conversation (see appendix from Reese & Newcombe, 2007, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01058.x).

Two master's level research assistants in Psychology administered the training to primary caregiver mothers. The lead investigator (E. Reese) trained the research assistants first on the rationale behind the techniques and how to teach mothers the techniques.

All parent training was individual and conducted face-to-face.

All training sessions took place in mothers' homes.

After an initial training session when children were 21 months, mothers received booster training sessions in the home when children were 25 months and 29 months. These sessions were of similar length to the initial training session (about 15 minutes each).

RAs conducted longer sessions with mothers who indicated they needed more help.

Implementation was assessed with a videotaped post-intervention reminiscing conversation for all mothers in the treatment and control conditions when children were 32 months old and in a long-term post-test at 44 months (compared to a pre-intervention baseline reminiscing interaction when children were 19 months old). At these time points, mothers were encouraged to talk about the past with their children in whatever way felt natural while the experimenter was out of the room. Then their conversations were transcribed and coded for elements of elaborative reminiscing: particularly open-ended questions and confirmations (see Reese & Newcombe, 2007, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01058.x).
Intervention code [1] 315602 0
Behaviour
Comparator / control treatment
The same two research assistants visited mothers in the control group in the home the same number of times as in the treatment group to assess children's oral language and memory skills. These visits for both treatment and control groups took place at 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, and 32 months, with a long-term post=test at 44 months. At these sessions, research assistants discussed any child development issues that mothers wished to bring up, with a particular focus on children's language development, but they did not administer the specific training in reminiscing that mothers in the treatment group received.
Control group
Active

Outcomes
Primary outcome [1] 321434 0
Mothers' elaborative reminiscing, as measured by the number of elaborations and confirmations in their post-test reminiscing conversations with children. In line with current practice for assessing reminiscing (Salmon & Reese, 2016), mothers and children were videotaped and audiotaped discussing 3 recent, personally experienced past events while the researcher was out of the room. These conversations were fully transcribed and then coded reliably for structure (type of question or comment) and content (elaborated information, repeated information, associated information, confirmation or correction, or off-topic information).
Timepoint [1] 321434 0
When children were 32 months and 44 months of age
Primary outcome [2] 321435 0
Children's autobiographical memory, as measured by their provisions of new information about past events in interviews with a researcher. Researchers were videotaped and audiotaped interviewed children about 3 personally experienced past events using empty prompts and questions (e.g., Tell me about when you ___; Anything else?) until children indicated they had told everything they remembered about the event (see Salmon & Reese, 2016). The interviews were fully transcribed and then coded reliably for children's provision of new units of memory information about the past event.
Timepoint [2] 321435 0
When children were 44 months of age
Primary outcome [3] 321436 0
Children's oral narrative skills, as measured by their provisions of narrative details (actions, descriptions, evaluations, orientations) of past events in interviews with a researcher. The transcripts of the same interviews as in Primary Outcome 3 were then coded reliably for narrative structure: actions, descriptions, orientations, and evaluations.
Timepoint [3] 321436 0
44 months
Secondary outcome [1] 374934 0
Mothers' elaborative reminiscing with adolescents, as measured by their use of elaborations and confirmations in reminiscing conversations. Mothers and adolescents were audiotaped at home discussing a positive and negative event of their choice (order counterbalanced). The conversations were fully transcribed and then coded reliably for structure and content using the same scheme as for the early childhood conversations.
Timepoint [1] 374934 0
Age 11
Secondary outcome [2] 374935 0
Adolescents' life narrative skills, as measured by the coherence of their critical event narratives. In the lab, a researcher interviewed each adolescent about significant life events (high point, low point, transgression, turning point, nostalgia event) using the Emerging Life Story Interview (Reese, Yan, Hayne, & Jack, 2010). The interviews were fully transcribed and then coded reliably for narrative coherence using established schemes (Reese et al., 2011; Reese et al., 2017).
Timepoint [2] 374935 0
Ages 11, 15, and 20 years
Secondary outcome [3] 374936 0
Adolescents' earliest memories, as measured by the age of their earliest memories. As part of the ELSI, researchers interviewed adolescents about their earliest memories. These interviews were fully transcribed and coded reliably for the age and content of earliest memories.
Timepoint [3] 374936 0
Ages 11, 15, and 20 years
Secondary outcome [4] 374937 0
Adolescents reported on their emotional problems, peer problems, conduct problems, and prosocial strengths using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, Goodman 1997).
Timepoint [4] 374937 0
Ages 11, 15, and 20 years
Secondary outcome [5] 375637 0
Adolescents' reported on their depressive symptoms with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression inventory (CESD; Radloff, 1977) at age 15 and with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) at age 20.
Timepoint [5] 375637 0
Ages 15 and 20 years
Secondary outcome [6] 375638 0
Adolescents reported on their life satisfaction with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, 1985).
Timepoint [6] 375638 0
Ages 15 and 20 years
Secondary outcome [7] 375639 0
Adolescents reported on their self-esteem with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965).
Timepoint [7] 375639 0
Ages 15 and 20 years

Eligibility
Key inclusion criteria
English-speaking primary caregivers (aged 18 to 50 years) and 19-month-old children
Minimum age
18 Months
Maximum age
50 Years
Gender
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
Yes
Key exclusion criteria
Children with any known language or developmental disabilities

Study design
Purpose of the study
Educational / counselling / training
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Numbered containers
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Simple randomisation by drawing id numbers out of an opaque container
Masking / blinding
Blinded (masking used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?


The people assessing the outcomes
The people analysing the results/data
Intervention assignment
Parallel
Other design features
Phase
Not Applicable
Type of endpoint(s)
Efficacy
Statistical methods / analysis
I conducted a power analysis based on effect sizes found in previous correlational studies of mother-child elaborative reminiscing to arrive at a minimum of 50 participants for each of the treatment and control groups.

Statistical analyses are ANCOVAs on the outcomes of interest, controlling for baseline scores on maternal elaboration, maternal education, and children's language development.

Recruitment
Recruitment status
Active, not recruiting
Date of first participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last data collection
Anticipated
Actual
Sample size
Target
Accrual to date
Final
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 21871 0
New Zealand
State/province [1] 21871 0
Otago

Funding & Sponsors
Funding source category [1] 303848 0
Government body
Name [1] 303848 0
Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Address [1] 303848 0
11 Turnbull Street
Thorndon Wellington 6011
Country [1] 303848 0
New Zealand
Funding source category [2] 303849 0
University
Name [2] 303849 0
University of Otago Division of Sciences
Address [2] 303849 0
University of Otago
Division of Sciences
85 Union Place
Dunedin, 9016
Country [2] 303849 0
New Zealand
Primary sponsor type
Individual
Name
Professor Elaine Reese
Address
University of Otago
Department of Psychology
93 Union Street East
Dunedin 9054
Country
New Zealand
Secondary sponsor category [1] 303981 0
None
Name [1] 303981 0
Address [1] 303981 0
Country [1] 303981 0

Ethics approval
Ethics application status
Approved
Ethics committee name [1] 304361 0
University of Otago Ethics Committee
Ethics committee address [1] 304361 0
University of Otago
Academic Committees and Services
Scott Shand House, 1st Floor
90 St David's Street
Dunedin 9016
Ethics committee country [1] 304361 0
New Zealand
Date submitted for ethics approval [1] 304361 0
02/11/1998
Approval date [1] 304361 0
15/12/1998
Ethics approval number [1] 304361 0
14/226

Summary
Brief summary
The purpose of this intervention was to teach mothers to reminisce in a richer way with their toddlers to enhance their children's memories. With a community sample of 115 mothers and their 19-month-old children, we randomly assigned mothers to receive reminiscing training or participate in a control group. We then measured the impact of early reminiscing training on young children's memory, narrative, and theory of mind skills, and on adolescents' memory, identity, and well-being to age 20.

Trial website
Trial related presentations / publications
Public notes

Contacts
Principal investigator
Name 96686 0
Prof Elaine Reese
Address 96686 0
University of Otago
Department of Psychology
PO Box 56
Dunedin, New Zealand 9054
Country 96686 0
New Zealand
Phone 96686 0
+64 03 479 8441
Fax 96686 0
64 03 479 8335
Email 96686 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz
Contact person for public queries
Name 96687 0
Prof Elaine Reese
Address 96687 0
University of Otago
Department of Psychology
PO Box 56
Dunedin, New Zealand 9054
Country 96687 0
New Zealand
Phone 96687 0
+64 03 479 8441
Fax 96687 0
64 03 479 8335
Email 96687 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz
Contact person for scientific queries
Name 96688 0
Prof Elaine Reese
Address 96688 0
University of Otago
Department of Psychology
PO Box 56
Dunedin, New Zealand 9054
Country 96688 0
New Zealand
Phone 96688 0
+64 03 479 8441
Fax 96688 0
64 03 479 8335
Email 96688 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz

Data sharing statement
Will individual participant data (IPD) for this trial be available (including data dictionaries)?
No
No/undecided IPD sharing reason/comment
This study is an ongoing longitudinal study, so to share IPD might compromise future analyses.
What supporting documents are/will be available?
Study protocol
Statistical analysis plan
Informed consent form
Ethical approval
How or where can supporting documents be obtained?
Type [1] 4882 0
Study protocol
Citation [1] 4882 0
Link [1] 4882 0
Email [1] 4882 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz
Other [1] 4882 0
Attachment [1] 4882 0
Type [2] 4883 0
Statistical analysis plan
Citation [2] 4883 0
Link [2] 4883 0
Email [2] 4883 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz
Other [2] 4883 0
Attachment [2] 4883 0
Type [3] 4884 0
Informed consent form
Citation [3] 4884 0
Link [3] 4884 0
Email [3] 4884 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz
Other [3] 4884 0
Attachment [3] 4884 0
Type [4] 4885 0
Ethical approval
Citation [4] 4885 0
Link [4] 4885 0
Email [4] 4885 0
ereese@psy.otago.ac.nz
Other [4] 4885 0
Attachment [4] 4885 0
Summary results
Have study results been published in a peer-reviewed journal?
Yes
Journal publication details
Publication date and citation/details [1] 4886 0
Reese, E., & Newcombe, R. (2007). Training mothers in elaborative reminiscing enhances children’s autobiographical memory and narrative. Child Development, 78, 1153-1170. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01058.x


Attachments [1] 4886 0
Publication date and citation/details [2] 4887 0
Taumoepeau, M., & Reese, E. (2013). Maternal reminiscing, elaborative talk, and children’s theory of mind: An intervention study. First Language, 33, 388-410. doi: 10.1177/0142723713493347
Attachments [2] 4887 0
Publication date and citation/details [3] 4888 0
Reese, E., Macfarlane, L., McAnally, H. M., Robertson, S. J., & Taumoepeau, M. (in press). Growing memories: Coaching in maternal reminiscing with preschoolers leads to elaborative and coherent personal narratives in adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.
Attachments [3] 4888 0
Other publications
Have study results been made publicly available in another format?
Yes
Other publication details
Citation type [1] 4889 0
Conference poster
Citation/DOI/link/details [1] 4889 0
Reese, E., Stewart, S., & Newcombe, R. (2003). Mothers’ elaborative talk about the past enhances children’s language and memory. Poster presented at the Cognitive Development Society meetings. Park City, UT.
Attachments [1] 4889 0
Citation type [2] 4890 0
Presentation
Citation/DOI/link/details [2] 4890 0
Reese, E. & Newcombe, R. (2006). Mothers’ elaborative talk about the past enhances children’s memory and narrative. In paper symposium, Parent-Child Conversation and Memory. K. Salmon chair. International Conference on Memory, Sydney.
Attachments [2] 4890 0
Citation type [3] 4891 0
Presentation
Citation/DOI/link/details [3] 4891 0
Mitchell, C., Hazan, H., Macfarlane, L., McAnally, H., & Reese, E. (2017). Maternal elaborative reminiscing fosters adolescents’ narrative identity. Paper presented by E. Reese at Society for Applied Research on Memory and Cognition (SARMAC) conference, Sydney.
Attachments [3] 4891 0
Citation type [4] 4892 0
Presentation
Citation/DOI/link/details [4] 4892 0
Reese, E., Mitchell, C., de Brelaz, G., & Hazan, H. (2019). Mother-child elaborative reminiscing protects against emotional problems for adolescents. Paper presented at the Society for Applied Research on Memory and Cognition (SARMAC), Cape Cod, MA.
Attachments [4] 4892 0
Results – basic reporting
Results – plain English summary
The main results to date from this study are that mothers in the treatment group became more elaborative and confirming in their reminiscing with their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group, and mothers maintained these differences in the long-term post-tests at age 3.5 years and 11 years. Children whose mothers were in the treatment group correspondingly provided more detailed memories with a researcher at age 3.5 years, especially if they started out the study with higher levels of self-awareness. Children of mothers in the treatment group also narrated their memories in richer ways, specifically by including more actions. Children of mothers in the treatment group who had lower language levels at the start of the study also benefitted more in their understanding of knowledge at age 3.5 years compared to children of mothers in the control group. At age 11, adolescents of mothers in the treatment group told more coherent narratives of low-point events to a researcher compared to adolescents of mothers in the control group, but the two groups did not differ in the narrative coherence of their high-point events.