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Trial details imported from ClinicalTrials.gov

For full trial details, please see the original record at https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01728155


Additional trial details provided through ANZCTR are available at the end of this record.


Registration number
NCT01728155
Ethics application status
Date submitted
1/10/2019
Date registered
13/11/2012
Date last updated
17/10/2019

Titles & IDs
Public title
European Low and Intermediate Risk Neuroblastoma Protocol
Scientific title
European Low and Intermediate Risk Neuroblastoma Protocol
Secondary ID [1] 0 0
LINES
Universal Trial Number (UTN)
Trial acronym
Linked study record

Health condition
Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied:
LOW AND INTERMEDIATE PAEDIATRIC NEUROBLASTOMA AND NEONATAL SUPRARENAL MASSES 0 0
Condition category
Condition code
Cancer 0 0 0 0
Neuroendocrine tumour (NET)
Cancer 0 0 0 0
Children's - Other

Intervention/exposure
Study type
Interventional
Description of intervention(s) / exposure
Treatment: Drugs - chemotherapy

No Intervention: Group1 - initial observation (chemotherapy is only given if there is subsequent progression)

Active Comparator: Group 1: chemotherapy - chemotherapy and surgery

Experimental: Group 2 - chemotherapy and surgery

Experimental: Group 3 - chemotherapy and surgery

No Intervention: Group 4 - Observation

Experimental: Group 5 - chemotherapy

Experimental: Group 6 - chemotherapy and surgery

Experimental: Group 7 - chemotherapy and surgery

Experimental: Group 8 - chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and 13 cis-retinoic acid

Experimental: Group 9 - chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and 13 cis-retinoic acid

Experimental: Group 10 - chemotherapy, surgery,


Treatment: Drugs: chemotherapy


Intervention code [1] 0 0
Treatment: Drugs
Comparator / control treatment
Control group

Outcomes
Primary outcome [1] 0 0
Primary aim for Low Risk Neuroblastoma - To demonstrate through a randomisation between observation and chemotherapy that you can safely reduce treatment in a subgroup of L2 low risk patients (those without life threatening symptoms (LTS) and without any segmental chromosomal changes (SCA), i.e. study group 1) by giving less treatment than has been given historically while maintaining an excellent OS of 100%.
Timepoint [1] 0 0
2 years
Primary outcome [2] 0 0
Primary aim for Intermediate Risk Neuroblastoma - To improve the EFS to 70% with an OS of 90% of INRG stage L2 patients over the age of 18 months, with poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumour histology (INPC criteria), by the addition of radiotherapy and 13-cis RA compared to historical conventional treatment (study group 8).
Timepoint [2] 0 0
2 years
Primary outcome [3] 0 0
Primary Aim for Neonatal Suprarenal Masses - To maintain a 3-year event free survival over 80% with a non-operative therapeutic approach (serial monitoring, surgery if warranted) in infants with a localised suprarenal mass discovered ante or neonatally.
Timepoint [3] 0 0
3 year
Secondary outcome [1] 0 0
To maintain a 2 year EFS of at least 90% and an OS of at least 95% in L2 patients with LTS without SCA (study group 2)
Timepoint [1] 0 0
2 year
Secondary outcome [2] 0 0
To maintain the 2 year EFS of 85% and an OS of at least 98% in Ms patients without SCA (study groups 4 and 5)
Timepoint [2] 0 0
2 year
Secondary outcome [3] 0 0
To improve the 2 year EFS to at least 90% and maintain the OS of close to 100% in L2 patients with SCA (Study Group 3) and improve the 2 year EFS to over 70% in Ms patients with SCA (study group 6)
Timepoint [3] 0 0
2 year
Secondary outcome [4] 0 0
To evaluate adherence to the protocol recommendations regarding LTS
Timepoint [4] 0 0
5 years
Secondary outcome [5] 0 0
To reduce surgical morbidity by promoting strict adherence to Image Defined-Risk Factors (IDRFs) to determine surgical resectability
Timepoint [5] 0 0
5 year
Secondary outcome [6] 0 0
To define the long term follow-up and natural history of the Stage L2 non-resected masses that have remained IDRF positive at the end of treatment (study groups 1-3).
Timepoint [6] 0 0
5 year
Secondary outcome [7] 0 0
To confirm in a larger patient cohort the excellent OS of 95% in stage M neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, less than 12 months of age, when treated with moderate therapy (study group 10).
Timepoint [7] 0 0
3 year
Secondary outcome [8] 0 0
Maintain the results of 3yr-EFS of 90% and 3yr-OS of 100% in stage L2 patients over the age of 18 months, with differentiating neuroblastoma or differentiating ganglioneuroblastoma nodular, despite a treatment reduction (group7)
Timepoint [8] 0 0
3 year
Secondary outcome [9] 0 0
To improve the 3 year EFS to at least 50% and the 3 year OS to 80% in INSS stage I patients with MYCN amplified neuroblastoma by the addition of adjuvant treatment (study group 9).
Timepoint [9] 0 0
3 year
Secondary outcome [10] 0 0
To evaluate the impact of the tumour genomic profile on patient outcome, in order to consider its role in the treatment stratification of these intermediate risk patients (all study groups).
Timepoint [10] 0 0
5 years
Secondary outcome [11] 0 0
To manage infants with suprarenal masses discovered ante or neonatally with a uniform approach in Europe in a multicentre setting.
Timepoint [11] 0 0
5 years
Secondary outcome [12] 0 0
To maintain an excellent overall survival with a non-operative therapeutic approach (serial monitoring, surgery if warranted) in infants with a localised suprarenal mass discovered ante or neonatally.
Timepoint [12] 0 0
3 years
Secondary outcome [13] 0 0
To determine the 3-year surgery-free survival in infants with suprarenal masses discovered ante or neonatally and managed conservatively (non initial surgery).
Timepoint [13] 0 0
3 years
Secondary outcome [14] 0 0
To find out the natural history of perinatal suprarenal masses, according to the definitions set up for the study.
Timepoint [14] 0 0
5 years
Secondary outcome [15] 0 0
To study the kinetics of regression in those suspected suprarenal neuroblastomas in infants with suprarenal masses discovered ante or neonatally and managed conservatively (non initial surgery).
Timepoint [15] 0 0
5 years
Secondary outcome [16] 0 0
To collect tissue from those suprarenal masses excised in order to perform standard and investigational pathological and biological studies (INPC, MYCN, 1p, 11).
Timepoint [16] 0 0
5 years
Secondary outcome [17] 0 0
To collect frozen plasma from all patients included in the study in order to perform research.
Timepoint [17] 0 0
5 years

Eligibility
Key inclusion criteria
1. LOW RISK STUDY

Inclusion criteria for the whole low risk group:

- informed consent and follow-up warranted; group assignment completed within 6
weeks from diagnosis; no prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy

- Biopsy proven neuroblastoma

- Tumour genomic profile obtained in a NRL according to guidelines

- MYCN non-amplified
Minimum age
90 Days
Maximum age
18 Years
Gender
Both males and females
Can healthy volunteers participate?
No
Key exclusion criteria
Exclusion criteria for the whole low risk group:

* Diagnosis of ganglioneuroma or ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed INRG Stage L2

Inclusion criteria:

*age ≤ 18 months

Exclusion criteria:

- any metastatic site

- MYCN amplification

- age > 18 months INRG Stage Ms

Inclusion criteria:

* age ≤ 12 months

Exclusion criteria:

- bone, pleura/lung and/or CNS metastasis

- MYCN amplification

- age > 12 months

2. INTERMEDIATE RISK STUDY

Inclusion criteria for the whole intermediate risk group:

- informed consent and follow-up warranted; group assignment completed within 6
weeks from diagnosis; no prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy

- Tumour material available for biological studies according to guidelines

- Biopsy proven neuroblastoma confirmed in a National Reference Laboratory (NRL)

Exclusion criteria for the whole intermediate risk group:

* Diagnosis of ganglioneuroma or ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed

INRG Stage L1 and INSS stage 1:

Inclusion criteria:

* MYCN amplified

Exclusion criteria:

- MYCN non-amplified

- INSS stages 2, 3, 4, 4s

INRG Stage L2:

Inclusion criteria:

- Histology: differentiating, poorly differentiated, undifferentiated neuroblastoma
or ganglioneuroblastoma nodular

- MYCN non-amplified

- age >18 months

Exclusion criteria:

- neuroblastoma NOS

- MYCN amplification.

- age ≤ 18 months

INRG Stage M:

Inclusion criteria:

- Any histology

- MYCN non-amplified

- age ≤ 12 months

Exclusion criteria:

- MYCN amplification

- age > 12 months

3. NEONATAL SUPRARENAL MASSES

Inclusion criteria:

- Age less than or equal to 90 days when the suprarenal mass is discovered.

- Suprarenal mass detected by ultrasound and/or MRI. The suprarenal mass may be cystic
and/or solid, but IT CANNOT REACH THE MIDLINE AND should MEASURE ≤ 5 CM AT THE LARGEST
DIAMETER.

- No regional involvement: MRI scan does not show evidence of positive
ipsi/contralateral lymph nodes or other spread outside the suprarenal gland.

- No metastatic involvement.

- Frozen plasma available.

- Informed consent.

- Availability to do the adequate follow-up

Exclusion criteria:

- Age older than 90 days.

- Suprarenal mass bigger than 5 cm.

- Regional involvement.

- Metastatic involvement.

- Inability to undertake mandatory diagnostic studies (biological markers, US, MRI,
MIBG).

- Follow-up not guaranteed by parents/guardians.

Study design
Purpose of the study
Treatment
Allocation to intervention
Randomised controlled trial
Procedure for enrolling a subject and allocating the treatment (allocation concealment procedures)
Methods used to generate the sequence in which subjects will be randomised (sequence generation)
Masking / blinding
Open (masking not used)
Who is / are masked / blinded?



Intervention assignment
Parallel
Other design features
Phase
Phase 3
Type of endpoint(s)
Statistical methods / analysis

Recruitment
Recruitment status
Recruiting
Data analysis
Reason for early stopping/withdrawal
Other reasons
Date of first participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last participant enrolment
Anticipated
Actual
Date of last data collection
Anticipated
Actual
Sample size
Target
Accrual to date
Final
Recruitment in Australia
Recruitment state(s)
Recruitment outside Australia
Country [1] 0 0
Austria
State/province [1] 0 0
Graz
Country [2] 0 0
Austria
State/province [2] 0 0
Innsbruck
Country [3] 0 0
Austria
State/province [3] 0 0
Linz
Country [4] 0 0
Austria
State/province [4] 0 0
Wien
Country [5] 0 0
Belgium
State/province [5] 0 0
Antwerpen
Country [6] 0 0
Belgium
State/province [6] 0 0
Bruxelles
Country [7] 0 0
Belgium
State/province [7] 0 0
Gent
Country [8] 0 0
Belgium
State/province [8] 0 0
Leuven
Country [9] 0 0
Belgium
State/province [9] 0 0
Liège
Country [10] 0 0
Denmark
State/province [10] 0 0
Aarhus
Country [11] 0 0
Denmark
State/province [11] 0 0
Copenhagen
Country [12] 0 0
Denmark
State/province [12] 0 0
Odense
Country [13] 0 0
Israel
State/province [13] 0 0
Beersheba
Country [14] 0 0
Israel
State/province [14] 0 0
Haifa
Country [15] 0 0
Israel
State/province [15] 0 0
Petah Tikva
Country [16] 0 0
Israel
State/province [16] 0 0
Tel aviv
Country [17] 0 0
Italy
State/province [17] 0 0
Ancona
Country [18] 0 0
Italy
State/province [18] 0 0
Bari
Country [19] 0 0
Italy
State/province [19] 0 0
Bergamo
Country [20] 0 0
Italy
State/province [20] 0 0
Bologna
Country [21] 0 0
Italy
State/province [21] 0 0
Brescia
Country [22] 0 0
Italy
State/province [22] 0 0
Cagliari
Country [23] 0 0
Italy
State/province [23] 0 0
Catania
Country [24] 0 0
Italy
State/province [24] 0 0
Ferrara
Country [25] 0 0
Italy
State/province [25] 0 0
Firenze
Country [26] 0 0
Italy
State/province [26] 0 0
Genova
Country [27] 0 0
Italy
State/province [27] 0 0
Milano
Country [28] 0 0
Italy
State/province [28] 0 0
Modena
Country [29] 0 0
Italy
State/province [29] 0 0
Napoli
Country [30] 0 0
Italy
State/province [30] 0 0
Padova
Country [31] 0 0
Italy
State/province [31] 0 0
Palermo
Country [32] 0 0
Italy
State/province [32] 0 0
Parma
Country [33] 0 0
Italy
State/province [33] 0 0
Pavia
Country [34] 0 0
Italy
State/province [34] 0 0
Pescara
Country [35] 0 0
Italy
State/province [35] 0 0
Rimini
Country [36] 0 0
Italy
State/province [36] 0 0
Roma
Country [37] 0 0
Italy
State/province [37] 0 0
San Giovanni Rotondo
Country [38] 0 0
Italy
State/province [38] 0 0
Siena
Country [39] 0 0
Italy
State/province [39] 0 0
Torino
Country [40] 0 0
Italy
State/province [40] 0 0
Tricase
Country [41] 0 0
Italy
State/province [41] 0 0
Trieste
Country [42] 0 0
Italy
State/province [42] 0 0
Verona
Country [43] 0 0
Norway
State/province [43] 0 0
Bergen
Country [44] 0 0
Norway
State/province [44] 0 0
Oslo
Country [45] 0 0
Norway
State/province [45] 0 0
Tromsoe
Country [46] 0 0
Norway
State/province [46] 0 0
Trondheim
Country [47] 0 0
Spain
State/province [47] 0 0
Barcelona
Country [48] 0 0
Spain
State/province [48] 0 0
Madrid
Country [49] 0 0
Spain
State/province [49] 0 0
Tenerife
Country [50] 0 0
Spain
State/province [50] 0 0
Albacete
Country [51] 0 0
Spain
State/province [51] 0 0
Alicante
Country [52] 0 0
Spain
State/province [52] 0 0
Almería
Country [53] 0 0
Spain
State/province [53] 0 0
Badajoz
Country [54] 0 0
Spain
State/province [54] 0 0
Bilbao
Country [55] 0 0
Spain
State/province [55] 0 0
Córdoba
Country [56] 0 0
Spain
State/province [56] 0 0
Granada
Country [57] 0 0
Spain
State/province [57] 0 0
Jaén
Country [58] 0 0
Spain
State/province [58] 0 0
Murcia
Country [59] 0 0
Spain
State/province [59] 0 0
Málaga
Country [60] 0 0
Spain
State/province [60] 0 0
Oviedo
Country [61] 0 0
Spain
State/province [61] 0 0
Pamplona
Country [62] 0 0
Spain
State/province [62] 0 0
San Sebastián
Country [63] 0 0
Spain
State/province [63] 0 0
Santiago de Compostela
Country [64] 0 0
Spain
State/province [64] 0 0
Sevilla
Country [65] 0 0
Spain
State/province [65] 0 0
Valencia
Country [66] 0 0
Spain
State/province [66] 0 0
València
Country [67] 0 0
Spain
State/province [67] 0 0
Zaragoza
Country [68] 0 0
Sweden
State/province [68] 0 0
Göteborg
Country [69] 0 0
Sweden
State/province [69] 0 0
Linköping
Country [70] 0 0
Sweden
State/province [70] 0 0
Lund
Country [71] 0 0
Sweden
State/province [71] 0 0
Stockholm
Country [72] 0 0
Sweden
State/province [72] 0 0
Umeå
Country [73] 0 0
Sweden
State/province [73] 0 0
Uppsala
Country [74] 0 0
Switzerland
State/province [74] 0 0
Lausanne

Funding & Sponsors
Primary sponsor type
Other
Name
Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria La Fe
Address
Country

Ethics approval
Ethics application status

Summary
Brief summary
The European study, LINES 2009 (Low and Intermediate Risk Neuroblastoma European Study),
groups together in a single protocol the treatment of all patients with "non high risk"
neuroblastoma (NB), with stratification into two groups: low risk and intermediate risk.
These two separate cohorts are included in one single protocol to enable patient data from
these two groups to be entered into a common database, as the current prognostic
classifications determining treatment may evolve further with subsequent more detailed
molecular analysis of the tumours.

1. LOW RISK STUDY

The Low Risk Study is proposed in order to:

- minimise the amount of treatment (chemotherapy and surgery) for all appropriate low risk
patients, who in previous studies have been shown to have an excellent long-term outcome
(as in the SIOPEN 99.1-2 infant neuroblastoma studies where the overall survival was
greater than 97%(H. Rubie, JCO).

- improve the EFS and maintain the OS (overall survival) in L2 and Ms patients with a
SCA(Segmental Cromosomal Aberration) genomic profile tumour (presence of any segmental
chromosomal change (SCA)) by electively treating these patients with chemotherapy
despite the absence of symptoms.

2) INTERMEDIATE RISK STUDY

The Intermediate Risk Study is proposed in order to:

- reduce the amount of chemotherapy for differentiating histology INRG (International
Neuroblastoma Risk Group) stage L2 NB and ganglioneuroblastoma nodular patients who in
previous SIOPEN study have been shown to have an excellent long-term outcome;

- increase the amount of treatment (radiotherapy and 13-cis-RA (13-cis-Retinoic Acid) for
poorly differentiated or undifferentiated histology INRG stage L2 NB or
ganglioneuroblastoma nodular patients in order to improve the EFS registered in the
previous SIOPEN study;

- improve the EFS (Event Free Survival) of MYCN (V-Myc myelocytomatosis viral related
oncogene, NB derived ,avian )amplified INSS (International NB Staging System) stage 1 NB
patients with the introduction of adjuvant treatment;

- maintain the very good results obtained in previous SIOPEN study for INRG stage M
infants with a moderate treatment.

NEONATAL SUPRARENAL MASSES

The incidence of suprarenal tumours/masses has increased in the last decade due to the
expanded use of prenatal ultrasonography in routine obstetric care and in the neonatal and
early infancy care. The differential diagnosis of these masses ranges from benign (adrenal
haemorrhage) to malignant processes (neuroblastoma, adrenal carcinoma). Knowledge on
perinatal suprarenal masses, although based on a relatively large literature, is scattered
amongst studies on very few cases with no methodical approach and often short follow up.
Therefore, the optimal management of these masses has not been clearly defined. Neuroblastoma
at this age is an intriguing entity with a very good prognosis in most cases. The SIOPEN
Group, based on their results in the first multicenter European Trial for infants with
neuroblastoma (INES) and the world-wide experience provided in the literature, is launching
this European surveillance study (Multi-centre, non-blinded, one armed prospective trial) for
these masses. Treatment: Observation
Trial website
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01728155
Trial related presentations / publications
Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold F, Carlsen NL, Castel V, Castelberry RP, De Bernardi B, Evans AE, Favrot M, Hedborg F, et al. Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Aug;11(8):1466-77. Review.
Cohn SL, Pearson AD, London WB, Monclair T, Ambros PF, Brodeur GM, Faldum A, Hero B, Iehara T, Machin D, Mosseri V, Simon T, Garaventa A, Castel V, Matthay KK; INRG Task Force. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system: an INRG Task Force report. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 10;27(2):289-97. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.6785. Epub 2008 Dec 1.
De Bernardi B, Gerrard M, Boni L, Rubie H, Cañete A, Di Cataldo A, Castel V, Forjaz de Lacerda A, Ladenstein R, Ruud E, Brichard B, Couturier J, Ellershaw C, Munzer C, Bruzzi P, Michon J, Pearson AD. Excellent outcome with reduced treatment for infants with disseminated neuroblastoma without MYCN gene amplification. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1034-40. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.17.5877. Epub 2009 Jan 26.
Janoueix-Lerosey I, Schleiermacher G, Michels E, Mosseri V, Ribeiro A, Lequin D, Vermeulen J, Couturier J, Peuchmaur M, Valent A, Plantaz D, Rubie H, Valteau-Couanet D, Thomas C, Combaret V, Rousseau R, Eggert A, Michon J, Speleman F, Delattre O. Overall genomic pattern is a predictor of outcome in neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1026-33. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.0630. Epub 2009 Jan 26.
Schleiermacher G, Michon J, Huon I, d'Enghien CD, Klijanienko J, Brisse H, Ribeiro A, Mosseri V, Rubie H, Munzer C, Thomas C, Valteau-Couanet D, Auvrignon A, Plantaz D, Delattre O, Couturier J; Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant (SFCE). Chromosomal CGH identifies patients with a higher risk of relapse in neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification. Br J Cancer. 2007 Jul 16;97(2):238-46. Epub 2007 Jun 19.
Cecchetto G, Mosseri V, De Bernardi B, Helardot P, Monclair T, Costa E, Horcher E, Neuenschwander S, Tomà P, Rizzo A, Michon J, Holmes K. Surgical risk factors in primary surgery for localized neuroblastoma: the LNESG1 study of the European International Society of Pediatric Oncology Neuroblastoma Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8483-9.
Monclair T, Brodeur GM, Ambros PF, Brisse HJ, Cecchetto G, Holmes K, Kaneko M, London WB, Matthay KK, Nuchtern JG, von Schweinitz D, Simon T, Cohn SL, Pearson AD; INRG Task Force. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system: an INRG Task Force report. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 10;27(2):298-303. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.6876. Epub 2008 Dec 1.
De Bernardi B, Mosseri V, Rubie H, Castel V, Foot A, Ladenstein R, Laureys G, Beck-Popovic M, de Lacerda AF, Pearson AD, De Kraker J, Ambros PF, de Rycke Y, Conte M, Bruzzi P, Michon J; SIOP Europe Neuroblastoma Group. Treatment of localised resectable neuroblastoma. Results of the LNESG1 study by the SIOP Europe Neuroblastoma Group. Br J Cancer. 2008 Oct 7;99(7):1027-33. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604640. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
Bagatell R, Beck-Popovic M, London WB, Zhang Y, Pearson AD, Matthay KK, Monclair T, Ambros PF, Cohn SL; International Neuroblastoma Risk Group. Significance of MYCN amplification in international neuroblastoma staging system stage 1 and 2 neuroblastoma: a report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 20;27(3):365-70. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.17.9184. Epub 2008 Dec 1.
Canete A, Gerrard M, Rubie H, Castel V, Di Cataldo A, Munzer C, Ladenstein R, Brichard B, Bermúdez JD, Couturier J, de Bernardi B, Pearson AJ, Michon J. Poor survival for infants with MYCN-amplified metastatic neuroblastoma despite intensified treatment: the International Society of Paediatric Oncology European Neuroblastoma Experience. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1014-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.14.5839. Epub 2009 Jan 26.
Hero B, Simon T, Spitz R, Ernestus K, Gnekow AK, Scheel-Walter HG, Schwabe D, Schilling FH, Benz-Bohm G, Berthold F. Localized infant neuroblastomas often show spontaneous regression: results of the prospective trials NB95-S and NB97. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 20;26(9):1504-10. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.12.3349.
Rubie H, Michon J, Plantaz D, Peyroulet MC, Coze C, Frappaz D, Chastagner P, Baranzelli MC, Méchinaud F, Boutard P, Lutz P, Perel Y, Leverger G, de Lumley L, Millot F, Stéphan JL, Margueritte G, Hartmann O. Unresectable localized neuroblastoma: improved survival after primary chemotherapy including carboplatin-etoposide. Neuroblastoma Study Group of the Société Française d'Oncologie Pédiatrique (SFOP). Br J Cancer. 1998 Jun;77(12):2310-7.
Castel V, Badal MD, Bezanilla JL, Llombart A, Ruiz-Jiménez JI, Sánchez de Toledo J, Melero C, Mulet J. Treatment of stage III neuroblastoma with emphasis on intensive induction chemotherapy: a report from the Neuroblastoma Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Oncology. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1995 Jan;24(1):29-35.
Garaventa A, De Bernardi B, Pianca C, Donfrancesco A, Cordero di Montezemolo L, Di Tullio MT, Bagnulo S, Mancini A, Carli M, Pession A, Arrighini A, Di Cataldo A, Tamaro P, Iasonni V, Taccone A, Rogers D, Boni L; Italian Cooperative Group dor Neuroblastoma. Localized but unresectable neuroblastoma: treatment and outcome of 145 cases. Italian Cooperative Group for Neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Sep;11(9):1770-9.
Garaventa A, Boni L, Lo Piccolo MS, Tonini GP, Gambini C, Mancini A, Tonegatti L, Carli M, di Montezemolo LC, Di Cataldo A, Casale F, Mazzocco K, Cecchetto G, Rizzo A, Bernardi B; Italian Cooperative Group for Neuroblastoma. Localized unresectable neuroblastoma: results of treatment based on clinical prognostic factors. Ann Oncol. 2002 Jun;13(6):956-64.
Castleberry RP, Kun LE, Shuster JJ, Altshuler G, Smith IE, Nitschke R, Wharam M, McWilliams N, Joshi V, Hayes FA. Radiotherapy improves the outlook for patients older than 1 year with Pediatric Oncology Group stage C neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 1991 May;9(5):789-95.
Modak S, Kushner BH, LaQuaglia MP, Kramer K, Cheung NK. Management and outcome of stage 3 neuroblastoma. Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jan;45(1):90-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2008.09.016. Epub 2008 Nov 6.
Park JR, Villablanca JG, London WB, Gerbing RB, Haas-Kogan D, Adkins ES, Attiyeh EF, Maris JM, Seeger RC, Reynolds CP, Matthay KK; Children's Oncology Group. Outcome of high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma with myeloablative therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Jan;52(1):44-50. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21784.
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Adela Cañete, MD, PhD
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Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain
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Adela Cañete, MD, PhD
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For IPD and results data, please see https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01728155

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ANZCHOG
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27-31 Wright Street, Clayton VIC 3168
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Australia
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Monash Children's Hospital
Sydney Children's Hospital

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Toby Trahair
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Australia
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Robyn Strong
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Toby Trahair
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toby.trahair@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au